Hyperledger Welcomes 11 New Members

“It’s very gratifying to see the momentum behind Hyperledger continue in 2018, two years after the project first started,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger. “The community’s development efforts have led us to release two production-ready frameworks and we’ve grown to more than 200 members in that time. Members add a great amount of value to our ecosystem and I look forward to contributions by this new set of organizations as more production deployments take shape later this year.”

Hyperledger aims to enable organizations to build robust, industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware systems to support their individual business transactions by creating enterprise-grade, open source distributed ledger frameworks and code bases. It is a global collaboration of more than 200 organizations including leaders in finance, banking, IoT, supply chain, manufacturing and technology. The latest general members are: 8Common, ArcBlock, Data Deposit Box, FORFIRM, ForgeRock, Inspur, Nexiot, ~sedna GmbH and Smart Block Laboratory.

Hyperledger supports an open community that values contributions and participation from various entities. As such, pre-approved non-profits, open source projects and government entities can join Hyperledger at no cost as Associate members. Associate members joining this month include: Peking University and ShareIT.io.

New member quotes:

8Common

“8common is very excited to join the Hyperledger family and we look forward to contributing our experience to design, develop and operationalise blockchain solutions,” said Nic Lim, Executive Chairman, 8common Limited. “Our core business, expense8, a leading government and large enterprise platform for credit card, travel and expense management in Australia, is well positioned to leverage blockchain to future proof our platform and collaborate with fellow Hyperledger members to deliver new platforms.”

ArcBlock

“Joining Hyperledger is a significant step for ArcBlock in making our platform enterprise-ready and accelerating our customers’ journey to production,” said Robert Mao, Founder and CEO, ArcBlock, Inc. “Our commitment to Hyperledger will help enterprise-grade blockchain technology adoption and will enable clients to innovate in most demanding applications through our innovative ArcBlock platform.”

Data Deposit Box

“We are very pleased to join the Hyperledger community and look forward to collaborating in our goal to deliver innovative blockchain solutions for our partners and clients worldwide,” said Tim Jewell, CEO, Data Deposit Box. “It is important to be part of such a diverse and talented community as we innovate at such a rapid pace. Our partners and clients are depending on applications to use common interfaces so they can select between blockchain service providers without the need for implementation changes. It took many years for S3 to become widely accepted as a standard interface for storage. We hope to help in the evolution of a simple blockchain service (SBS) and we know Hyperledger will be at the core.”

FORFIRM

“We are honored to become members of Hyperledger,” said Gaspare Corona, Blockchain Leader, FORFIRM. “Having actively worked with Hyperledger for some time, this decision is reflective of our desire to take our involvement to the next level and become a participant and contributor to the foundation. FORFIRM has developed a European network of blockchain specialists, working with clients across multiple industries to explore this disruptive technology and deliver it now.”

ForgeRock

“ForgeRock is delighted to join Hyperledger,” said Lasse Andresen, Chief Technology Officer, Co-founder, ForgeRock. “Hyperledger’s many strengths, such as performance, scalability, a modular architecture, and strong cryptography features provide many synergies with the ForgeRock Identity Platform’s goal to ‘connect, protect and respect’ — building trusted digital relationships with customers and the mobile devices and smart things with which they interact.”

Inspur

“As a revolutionary technology, blockchain will bring great changes to various industries and we’re excited to be part of Hyperledger,” said Mr. XiaoXue, Vice President, Inspur. “Currently, based on blockchain, Inspur is building a quality improvement ecosystem of multi-participation, connectivity and co-governance and sharing to facilitate implementation of a ‘Quality China’ Strategy.”

Nexiot

“Nexiot provides an end-to-end logistics platform that brings transparency and accountability to the supply chain. We are proud to join the Hyperledger community and see this as a significant step towards delivering blockchain enterprise-ready solutions for the logistics industry,” said Tzvetan Horozov, CTO, Nexiot. “Our technology enables a unique set of use-cases by providing real-time asset visibility, smart events processing and advanced data augmentation. We look forward to working with the diverse Hyperledger community and business partners to advance industrial process automation, technology innovation and maximize ROI.”

~sedna GmbH

“We are thrilled to become members of Hyperledger and The Linux Foundation,” said Rolf Maurer and Guido Matzer, Founders of ~sedna GmbH. “The integration of our solutions into hybrid corporate networks of things and creating stable and secure managed services for multichannel content distribution and playout including lifecycle management with p2p solutions for distributed locations is key to our future work. We are looking forward to collaborating with other members and contributing to the Hyperledger community.”

Smart Block Laboratory

“We’re thrilled to join Hyperledger and are proud to be part of this effort to create an open standard for distributed ledger technology,” said Pavel Lvov, Founder and CEO, Smart Block Laboratory. “We at Smart Block Laboratory, as a business partner of IBM, believe blockchain is the next evolution in how data will be stored and shared and we’re looking forward to working with this diverse community. Hyperledger membership will definitely provide us with the opportunity to onrush our newest CRYPTOENTER blockchain-based payment system and IoTNet platform, which is powered by Hyperledger Fabric blockchain technology.”

The call for papers is also now open for the inaugural Hyperledger Global Forum, taking place later this year, December 12-15 in Basel, Switzerland. Submit a talk today: https://events.linuxfoundation.org/events/hyperledger-global-forum-2018/program/cfp/

About Hyperledger

Hyperledger is an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. It is a global collaboration including leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chains, manufacturing and Technology. The Linux Foundation hosts Hyperledger under the foundation. To learn more, visit: https://www.hyperledger.org/.

Contact:

Jessica Rampen

The Linux Foundation/Hyperledger

jrampen@linuxfoundation.org

650.787.3548

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IIITM-K team wins Certificate of Excellence at Blockchain Hackathon

Thiruvananthapuram: A two-member student team from the Kerala Blockchain Academy (KBA) at IIITM-K has won the Certificate of Excellence (CoE) at the Open Innovation Blockchain Hackathon conducted by Best of Block Inc. at IIT Delhi recently. The KBA was represented at the Hackathon by Alex N D and Anusha Garg,

More than 25 teams, including blockchain professionals and startups, had competed for honours in this round of Hackathon held on February 24, out of whom only top three teams were awarded CoE.

KBA 1 (2)The award winners stand an opportunity to receive angel fund through Best Of Block Inc. which is a team of multidisciplinary experts focusing on blockchain research and product development.

The hackathon was supported by Incubate IND and eDC of IIT Delhi. It has its focus on new and innovative ideas and building decentralized applications and smart contracts over blockchain using Ethereum or Hyperledger technology.

Respecting the mission the KBA’s mission of “Leveraging Blockchain for Public Good”, the award-winning team presented a “Blockchain-based solution for the India’s Primary Health Sector” using Hyperledger technology which won the prize.

The team has also been invited for further discussions and commercialization of this idea.

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bluenotes debate: blocks, banks & bits

There are non-blockchain distributed ledger technologies coming in to the picture as well. I think they’re still at a research stage but that’s very interesting. I think Hashgraph is one of those things out in the market right now.

I think they have solved one problem that every other blockchain implementation has been lagging on and that’s scalability.

At the end of the day mainstream adoption means everything you ever do with cash or currency is backed by cryptocurrency. If you think in that scale you can’t go at a transactions-per-second speed of around 100 or 200. You’re thinking hundreds of thousands per second.

I mean if you want every single transaction every single Australian would ever do ever backed up by a blockchain you need to get a level of maturity in its implementation. I think we need to explore areas where scalability is at the heart of the technology and I believe that’s where blockchain is headed.

LM: Especially when you look at the trade-supply chain. I mean that’s a phenomenal amount of transactions which would have to get processed for this technology to succeed. If you look at bitcoin at the moment it is only processing about 150,000transactions a day.

HP: That’s right. That amounts to about seven a second.

LM: Yeah, at a cost of anywhere between $US100 to $US170 dollars a transaction. And the transaction confirmation isn’t seconds like we’d expect – it’s many minutes.

Customers won’t want to buy something and then sit down for 156 minutes waiting for the payment to confirm. They’ll walk out of the store.

When we look at scalability I think this is really one of the things we look for. We look at hyperledger and feel the fabric is built for large-scale industrialised financial services. But you know I actually don’t know whether we’re using the technology today we will end up using in two years’ time or five years’ time.

I actually think at some point they’ll converge into something different. Maybe a combination of Hashgraph, Hyperledger and other things.

ND: I’m sure that’s true. Nothing we’ve done in our relatively contained pilots and in experiments has involved currency or coin or tokens or whatever but these make the news every day.

We’re seeing you can trade all manner of crypto currencies but also issue your own. You can issue an initial coin offering and fund whatever venture you might have which is built supposedly around some sort of blockchain technology.

This is a fascinating new way of attracting investors in the first instance and also perhaps a really interesting way of funding a new business almost from nothing. But there is such fervor around this space. What are your thoughts?

LM: There are a number of countries which are actually looking at banning cryptocurrncies. I’m not quite sure whether we should get excited about it all yet. I mean obviously in areas where it’s appropriate it’s a legitimate form of raising.

ND: I admit I’m also fascinated by the prospect – but is it real money?

HP: Well it’s perceived value. I mean the concept of money, I mean if you go back to the creation of currency it’s actually all perceived value. I mean, how much do you think the Australian dollar is worth? It’s supply and demand – basic economics.

If create something out of thin air and all of us believe there’s perceived value in it, then, yeah, it becomes something like valuable gold. If we all agree that gold is not valuable anymore and then no one would really care about gold.

ND: But Ican make my wife lovely jewellery out of gold – I can’t make her anything out of bitcoin. Hari what do you think?

HJ: Being probably the least technology oriented person here, what amuses me and also worries me sometimes is the hype.

There are so many companies which have said they are going to get into the blockchain business and you see their share prices just skyrocket.

The latest one which amused me was Bananacoin. The value of the token and is it linked to the underlying price of bananas, which is fair. But then is a promise the value of the coin will rise, but how is it going to rise if the price of bananas fall?

I see a lot of those types of speculations which we need to be careful about. But the one good thing to come from this hype is it has encouraged different players to come and work together.

From an international trade perspective that has really enabled banks which previously would not necessarily like to come and sit together to solve common problems.

But do we need so many cryptocurrencies? I’m not sure.

Shane White is senior production editor at bluenotes

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Developer Showcase Series: Luc Yriarte & Zinedine Hasni, ChainOrchestra

Our Developer Showcase blog series serves to highlight the work and motivations of developers, users and researchers collaborating on Hyperledger’s incubated projects. Next up is Luc Yriarte and Zinedine Hasni from ChainOrchestra. Let’s see what they have to say!

What advice would you offer other technologists or developers interested in getting started working on blockchain?

First things first. Blockchain is the buzzword of the day, before falling for the hype I would recommend taking a step back, and pondering what you are trying to achieve. Do you have a specific problem to solve that you feel that blockchain technology would help address, or do you want to provide a service based on the blockchain ?

If it’s the former, you might want to consider what blockchain has to offer regarding your specific need versus run of the mill encryption methods or just data replication. Some questions to ask yourself:

  1. Does your use-case involve several participants who don’t necessarily trust each other ?
  2. Is it something about transactions in the generalized acceptation of the term? For instance where a participant would transfer an asset to another, or provide some document, measure, or any other data that the other should read and acknowledge?
  3. Do you need to keep a record of these transactions ? Do all participants in your use-case want to know the transaction record is sound and unadulterated ?

Answering “no” to any of these questions means you are shooting yourself in the foot and should do something more straightforward. Otherwise… go for it!

Now what if you want to provide a service based on the blockchain ? There again, all hype and buzzword effect put aside, you need to consider if Hyperledger is right for you. The major existing blockchain instances Bitcoin and Ethereum are not going to disappear anytime soon, and it is very easy to deploy a solution on these systems – at least for now.

  1. Does your service need to be backed by a cryptocurrency, or is it more of a burden than anything else?
  2. Do you need to control membership access to your service?
  3. Will you need fine granularity and control on the transaction volume, speed, or size of the network?

If your service can be pegged to some cryptocurrency and you don’t need control over membership or network specifics, the legacy systems will do, otherwise… time to consider building your solution on Hyperledger.

Luc Yriarte and Zinedine Hasni of ChainOrchestra

Give a bit of background on what you’re working on, and let us know what was it that made you want to get into blockchain?

I’m the lead engineer for ChainOrchestra, a start-up focused on blockchain network deployment and operation.

About 18 months ago, late winter of 2016, I had an encounter with some people who wanted to build a secure network for the Internet of Things, based on a blockchain. The advantages of the blockchain in this area are many, most obviously protecting sensor measures from being tampered with, but also triggering automated procedures in a secure way, and so on. First we started reviewing Ethereum, but it didn’t seem able to cope with the potential huge volume of sensor data to manage, and the needs for quick response time. And over all, the whole proof-of-work rewarded by crypto-currency scheme seemed just overkill for what we were trying to achieve.

Then, spring of 2016, we got invited as part of the local tech ecosystem to the IBM Client Center in our hometown of Montpellier, France, for a conference on Hyperledger. A few things ensued:

  1. We decided to give Hyperledger a go for our first prototypes.
  2. We figured that since we’d be deploying and managing blockchain networks for the IoT, we might as well do the same for the other use-cases.
  3. I was hired to do networking and IoT, I ended-up being the blockchain engineer for lack of other options.

Right after that, we got Zinedine Hasni, our devops and systems engineer, on board. As of summer 2016, we started working on our first Hyperledger Fabric v0.6 network and a few use-case demos.

Zinedine: “When we started working on this, we added just PDF support from an IBM workshop. At the time Hyperledger was at version 0.5, and was powering IBM’s Open Blockchain.

While I was digging into this documentation I was surprised to see a lot virtualisation programs (docker inside vagrant)

so we had to figure out what was worth focusing on.

Also a lot of stuff was new to me (blockchain included), I only used docker once before, during my studies at the 42 Paris engineering school.

So we started by analyzing all the yaml files to understand how it works, and learned golang to write our chaincode. We had to figure out why our peers were crashing and fix them (had to update rocksdb in the docker images), which was quite painful.”

…But eventually we got things to work.

The web-based demos, revolving mainly around private data management and IoT device control, were rather well received. Now we are on the final steps of releasing a pre-production Hyperledger Fabric v1.0 network that will allow us to address the different segments we are aiming for. The features added for Fabric v1.0, especially channels and certificate authorities, bring a whole lot of flexibility to the blockchain. But also these features add a new layer of complexity, justifying the role of blockchain network operator that we are taking on in the ecosystem.

As Hyperledger’s incubated projects start maturing and hit 1.0s and beyond, what are the most interesting technologies, apps, or use cases coming out as a result from your perspective?

Hyperledger Fabric has come a long way between the last stable v0.6 and v1.0, and as I just mentioned, a lot of these features are very relevant from a blockchain network operator perspective. I already mentioned the separate channels and the certificate authority servers, but the most salient feature in my opinion, the one that enables the others, is the orderer network. By having an orderer network independent from the business networks you manage, you can truly allow different use-cases to co-exist in the same blockchain. Engaging several different user communities around a single blockchain infrastructure without having to duplicate a history of irrelevant transactions on each and every server becomes possible.

Then there are the other, user-related Hyperledger projects. Hyperledger Composer will most likely become the application framework of choice as app development for Hyperledger becomes more mainstream. On the same token, we are following with the Hyperledger Cello project with a lot of interest. Cello is aimed at blockchain network management, pretty much our core business. We are currently on an early evaluation phase, but we’d love to be able to participate at some point.

Zinedine: “Right now we are taking a bottom up approach to build our network with several organisations, channels, certificates authorities in addition to committer and endorser peers without forgetting orderers, kafka, zookeepers…(and SBFT coming soon).

The main goal for us is to get to the bare bones of all those components and build incrementally from there.”

We are also digging into the other Hyperledger implemenations besides Fabric, i.e. Sawtooth, Iroha and Indy. We consider the ability to have several implementations at hand, with different consensus mechanisms, very important. That’s a bit of a longer term perspective, but the flexibility that those implementation bring will be needed to address a wide range of areas, from the IoT to traditional businesses.

What technology could you not live without?

Running water. Like most people on this earth. And also electricity… and the internet. I’m old enough to have developed software when the internet didn’t exist, and I really wouldn’t want to go back. And when you look at it this way, Hyperledger being more of a protocol than an implementation of a blockchain, is the next layer of the internet, right after IP and the World Wide Web.

Related:

Top 5 open source projects for 2018

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Open source projects are promoting and accelerating cutting edge innovation, which do you think are the most important?

In our increasingly collaborative world, open source technology is a top trend that is having a major impact on the development and implementation of cutting edge capabilities. Open source is when source code connected to a program is made freely available, giving users the opportunity to make modifications and to share with other users.

The common alternative to this is proprietary software, source code that remains under the strict control of an organisation, team or individual, ensuring that the integral code remains private and controlled by its owner.

Top 5 open source projects for 2018

Legal terms are the major differentiating factor when it comes to proprietary and open source software, with the authors of the proprietary variety in complete control over who can use and share it. While there are obvious differences, users of open source software must still accept license terms, but once this is done the user is ordinarily free to do as they please with it.

Open source projects are having a major influence in spaces that are current top tech trends, machine learning, blockchain and deployment automation to name just some. With source code connected to these important and popular areas, the opportunity for innovation is multiplied and progress is ultimately sped up. It also gives organisations to leverage the most competitive capabilities, disrupting traditional processes. In light of this, we are about to share with you five of the top open source projects that you should know about right now.

OpenCog and OpenCog Prime

With OpenCog we are beginning with a prime example of a top tech trend that is at the cutting edge in 2018, artificial intelligence. This open source project has been designed as an architecture geared towards virtual and robot capabilities, intenTop 5 open source projects for 2018ded to be a framework for broad-based research in artificial general intelligence (AGI).

Designed by Ben Goertzel and written in Python, C++ and Scheme for Linux, this project is linked with the intention to achieve general intelligence matching and surpassing the human level, an achievement that today still seems a long way off. Those behind the project do admit this is their overall, long-term goal.

OpenCog has not only been brought into existence to achieve the aforementioned futuristic goal, it is also working towards reaching its more realistic research and development goals, while also streamlining its open source offering for practical application.

Hyperledger

Hyperledger’s origins are in 2015 when it was established by the Linux Foundation, the project is ultimately a toolbox for a range of open source blockchains and other useful elements. Tapping into another top tech trend, blockchain is widely noted at one of the very hottest areas as we enter 2018, with Gartner placing it among its top strategic trends for the enterprise this year.

Top 5 open source projects for 2018

The project was born with the wider intention that it should work towards promoting cross-industry collaboration, drawing upon a full spectrum of innovation for the furtherance of distributed ledger technology. Blockchain is believed by many to be a key to a new era of disruption, a technology that could fundamentally transform industry and many processes in daily life as we know it.

This project boasts a very high-profile membership, representing the excitement that surrounds the blockchain space more generally. Intel, Cisco, R3, JPMorgan, Fujitsu and SWIFT are just some of the members behind the Hyperledger open source project.

Kubernetes

Kubernetes is an open source system designed for the automation of deployment, the management of containerised applications. With the seed sewn by Google, the system is now under the watchful eye of the Cloud Native Computing Foundation. Perhaps among the most well known facts about Kubernetes is that it works closely with the software, Docker.

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With its name coming from the Greek for “helmsman”, the project freely provides its source code for the purpose of taking the wheel and automating the deployment process among others. Kubernetes has also had a broad and high-profile uptake, being leveraged by the likes of Pivotal, Red Hat, OpenShift and IBM. In 2017 the Cloud Native Computing Foundation was joined by Oracle, the major organisation that has subsequently used Kubernetes as an installer for Oracle Cloud Infrastructure.

TensorFlow

TensorFlow is perhaps the most well-known open source project, having been originally developed by the Google Brain Team, another open source project. Ultimately it is a software library that can be leveraged for programming and dataflow purposes, serving a wide range of use cases.

This project also taps into a current top tech trend, machine learning, a technology that is not new, but one that is gaining traction all the time as automation becomes increasingly desirable in the pursuit of a range of different outcomes.

Google is a major advocate for the project, with the search engine giant harnessing it for both research and production purposes. In terms of licensing, it was released in November 2015 under the Apache 2.0 open source license.

Vault

With so much mention of top tech trends, the matter of security cannot be passed by. This too, unsurprisingly, is an area that there is an open source project for. The Vault open source project offers a tool for the encryption of data while in-transit, and increasingly focussed on area with GDPR approaching, in addition to the general secure management of other information.

Top 5 open source projects for 2018

Secrecy is a central trope, providing secure storage that encrypts data even before being written onto persistent storage. In addition to this, the information can be written onto disk and other options.

The makers of Vault also highlight revocation as a primary benefit, and this is done by locking down systems in the event of intrusion, applying another increasingly valuable layer of security and reassurance to the protection of valuable data. With the threat landscape constantly intensifying, this is an open source project of prime importance in 2018.

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Analysis: Blockchain Driving T-Mobile into the Cloud Computing Business

T-Mobile, the No. 3 wireless carrier in the United States at 70.7 million customers, has been quietly hiring respected cryptocurrency developers since last summer.

Now the company appears poised to announce a blockchain project that could put the carrier in competition with much larger cloud computing players such as Google and Amazon and, not incidentally, positively affect its stock price.

One of T-Mobile’s first projects is Hyperledger Sawtooth 1.0, an open-source, distributed ledger product for on-chain governance which lets members adjust the rules on the fly through dynamic agreement.

The technology promises advanced transaction execution, in parallel and with support for multiple languages and Ethereum.

T-Mobile, Intel, Huawei and Cisco are among the project’s corporate sponsors, but there are 54 contributors across 18 organizations.

Chris Spanton, the senior architect of T-Mobile’s Hyper Directory, a blockchain proof-of-concept (PoC) launched in November, told reporters that several milestones are in the works for the second and third quarters in 2018.

All of those projects are also open source. Hyper Directory, for instance, uses Hyperledger Sawtooth to control who gets access to which T-Mobile cloud-based solutions, a process called identity and access management, or IAM.

Spanton was a speaker at Amazon’s Re:Invent event in Las Vegas in December, talking about how blockchain can improve security and cut costs for enterprises.

“Creating Hyper Directory solved core IAM use cases we had in our cloud infrastructure, and building it as a blockchain solution provided unique opportunities to push forward our deep technical expertise,” he said.

A closer look at some of the publicly available information on Hyper Directory provides some valuable insight into how it might fit into T-Mobile’s big picture.

Writing online about Hyper Directory, Spanton described the project this way,

There were “several unique pain points” pushing T-Mobile scale its cloud solutions to large enterprises, he explained.

“Specifically, the directory is being designed to address concerns over who has access to do what in the cloud, when those permissions are active, who grants those permissions and how this can all be done without increasing complexity.

“How do we solve the ‘who is watching the watchers’ problem of auditing change management?”

Competing with Google, Amazon

Spanton then went on to describe a system of smart contracts that approves and distributes permissions via an API layer on top of the Hyperledger Sawtooth blockchain.

Originally the Hyper Directory was designed with the company’s open-source Jazz platform, meant to develop cloud computing platforms without the need of a centralized server.

If successful, the open source work could make T-Mobile a direct competitor to Amazon, Microsoft, and Google’s cloud services products in a nearly $500 billion market.

There are even rumors of a possible ICO between partners to fund a global open source project, including Comcast and British Telecommunications PLC, along with Scandinavian telecommunications giant Telenor.

T-Mobile invested than $12 billion last year in research and development. If it succeeds in creating an open-source cloud services product, that could mean a major increase in the carrier’s customer base.

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Hyperledger’s Hackfest for developers and blockchain technology at UCLA

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Writing your first Business Model in Hyperledger Composer

This article focuses on creating a simple business model that helps you with visualizing the abstract nature of Hyperledger Composer’s language.

If you are confused on where to start or wasted a lot of your time in getting started with Hyperledger Composer, you should read this article. My co-worker, Varun has explained it in such a simple way that anyone can understand it.

What is Business Network Definition?

The Business Network Definition is the core definition that holds the Hyperledger Composer’s programming model. In short, it controls the model definition, the relationship between them, the access control over them and the actions that could be performed on/with them.

BND has three core components :

  1. The Model written in .cto files
  2. The Business Logic written in .js files
  3. The Access Control Logic written in .acl files

(Optional) There is a Query file written in .qry files that help us to query over the persistent DB.

These three components are easy to maintain and they govern our whole business application on the Composer.

Let’s see how to write a manageable simple model file that helps anyone understand most of our business logic. We will implement this in the business logic file.

Understanding The Key Concepts Of A Model

Before writing our own model, let us understand the key concepts of it. In a model file, you will be defining the following,

  1. A namespacenamespace org.skcript.svr
  2. Resources, which includes
    1. Participants
    2. Assets
    3. Transactions
    4. Events
  3. Optional import statements that are used to inherit or import other model files.

Resources Are Everything In A CTO File

A ‘Participant’ denotes the person who does the action (in simple terms). This is to whom the ID is issued and this is the one who performs transactions.

For example: Consider the example

participant Author identified by id { o Integer id o String name o String email o String specialized_in o Double age}

In the above example, we see there’s a participant named Author and the keyword identified by is used to select the primary key. Here, it is id field that acts as a primary key. We will know the wide applications of having this identified by on right field to have an easy and readable access to the model.

The circles are nothing but lower case ‘o’ (The O, yeah ! ). Composer’s model file has a unique way of representing a new key in their object. But you will get used to it.

Assets are the resource which our business model has. Considering our above example, Author is a participant, then Post will be the asset that he holds. And we know that every post will always belong to an author. There can never be an asset that won’t belong to an author. This can be done by creating a relationship between our participant and asset. This is easy-peasy because of the CTO’s modeling language.

P.S. You should be careful with relationship because it is unidirectional and you can’t do the vice versa which you can do in most of the application frameworks.

Example:

/*** An enumerated type*/enum Category { o AI o BLOCKCHAIN o WEB-DEVELOPMENT o BACKEND o DESIGN o FUN}/** * A post asset. */asset Post identified by id { o String id o String title o Category category o DateTime timestamp --> Author author --> Author coAuthor optional}

In the above example, as we learned earlier identified by is used with id as primary key which makes sense. Right? Now you can understand.

But where’s the new thing coming up? No rush. Let’s take it slow.

Let’s see the Line 21 – we see an arrow. Okay. I didn’t write it because it looks good on the code and it’s not a comment too. That’s again our Composer’s modeling language’s weird way of writing relationship. So we should read it as Post belongs to Author. That’s simple. Done.

In Line 22 , we can see there’s a new keyword optional. This helps us avoid mandatory entry to create an asset. This is defined as optional by thinking that there may or may not be a coauthor for a particular post.

Next, why enum ? It’s for managing a neat code. As our articles goal is not only to learn how to write a model but also to write a good one that can be easy to read and update.

So enum holds the possible values our field can take. So we defined an enum called Category and we gave it all the possible values it can take. Now in Line 19 we used it and created a category of enum Category .

Transactions are the process in which our participants do the operation on assets. Considering our scenario, author creating a post is also a transaction.

Example:

transaction createPost { --> Author owner o String title o Category category}

The above transaction definition emphasizes that we are creating a post by pointing out the author of the post. We also provide title and category while creating the post.

P.S: In our next post, we will learn more about the transactions and transaction processor functions.

Events are used to trigger some other third party application. You can write the logic for the event which will help you to send an email about the author’s new post. These events can be used to help you to send emails if and only if you subscribed to the particular author which helps to avoid spam and improves integrity. Events are also defined the same as transactions. The purpose is only different. Used with event keyword for declaration.

The Endless Possibilities Of The CTO File

You can still segregate the model declaration by abstract keyword which won’t create participant or asset in the registry, rather is used to inherit from the other resources.

Example: Considering the same scenario, try to understand the following code

abstract Participant UserInformation identified by name { o String name o String address o String email o Integer age}participant Author identified by id { o Integer id o String specialized_in o UserInformation user_information}

We created an abstract participant which holds most information about a user and we inherit and use that in our Author participant. This helps us have a clean model that still maintains Single Responsibility Principle. We can do abstract type for assets and transactions too.

Conclusion

There are much more magical things like extends that we can do with CTO file. But let’s end it clean and easy here. After you write your first model, you will figure out most of the conventions you might need to follow to have a maintainable code. Wish you a good luck, readers.

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21/02/2018@ FIY= Ripple hyperledger

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@21/02/2018@ FIY= Ripple hyperledger

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