OneFS SmartDedupe: Configuration and Management

As we saw in the previous article in this series, SmartDedupe operates at the directory level, targeting all files and directories underneath one or more root directories.

SmartDedupe not only deduplicates identical blocks in different files, it also matches and shares identical blocks within a single file. For two or more files to be deduplicated, the following two attributes must match:

  • Disk pool policy ID
  • Protection policy

If either of these attributes differs between two or more matching files, their common blocks will not be shared. SmartDedupe also does not deduplicate files that are less than 32 KB or smaller, because the resource consumption overhead outweighs the small storage efficiency benefit.

There are two principal elements to managing deduplication in OneFS. The first is the configuration of the SmartDedupe process itself. The second involves the scheduling and execution of the Dedupe job. These are both described below.

SmartDedupe works on data sets which are configured at the directory level, targeting all files and directories under each specified root directory. Multiple directory paths can be specified as part of the overall deduplication job configuration and scheduling.

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Similarly, the dedupe directory paths can also be configured from the CLI via the isi dedupe settings modify command. For example, the following command targets /ifs/data and /ifs/home for deduplication:

# isi dedupe settings modify –paths /ifs/data, /ifs/home

Bear in mind that the permissions required to configure and modify deduplication settings are separate from those needed to run a deduplication job. For example, a user’s role must have job engine privileges to run a deduplication job. However, in order to configure and modify dedupe configuration settings, they must have the deduplication role privileges.

SmartDedupe can be run either on-demand (started manually) or via a predefined schedule. This is configured via the cluster management ‘Job Operations’ section of the WebUI.

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Isilon recommends scheduling and running deduplication during off-hours, when the rate of data change on the cluster is low. If clients are continually writing to files, the amount of space saved by deduplication will be minimal because the deduplicated blocks are constantly being removed from the shadow store.

To modify the parameters of the dedupe job itself, run the isi job types modify command. For example, the following command configures the deduplication job to be run every Saturday at 12:00 AM:

# isi job types modify Dedupe –schedule “Every Saturday at 12:00 AM”

For most clusters, after the initial deduplication job has completed, the recommendation is to run an incremental deduplication job once every two weeks.

The amount of disk space currently saved by SmartDedupe can be determined by viewing the cluster capacity usage chart and deduplication reports summary table in the WebUI. The cluster capacity chart and deduplication reports can be found by navigating to File System Management > Deduplication > Summary.

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In addition to the bar chart and accompanying statistics (above), which graphically represents the data set and space efficiency in actual capacity terms, the dedupe job report overview field also displays the SmartDedupe savings as a percentage.

SmartDedupe space efficiency metrics are also provided via the ‘isi dedupe stats’ CLI command:

# isi dedupe stats

Cluster Physical Size: 676.8841T

Cluster Used Size: 236.3181T

Logical Size Deduplicated: 29.2562T

Logical Saving: 25.5125T

Estimated Size Deduplicated: 42.5774T

Estimated Physical Saving: 37.1290T

The Job Engine parallel execution framework provides comprehensive run time and completion reporting for the deduplication job.

Once the dedupe job has started working on a directory tree, the resulting space savings it achieves can be monitored in real time. While SmartDedupe is underway, job status is available at a glance via the progress column in the active jobs table. This information includes the number of files, directories and blocks that have been scanned, skipped and sampled, and any errors that may have been encountered.

Additional progress information is provided in an Active Job Details status update, which includes an estimated completion percentage based on the number of logical inodes (LINs) that have been counted and processed.

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Once the SmartDedupe job has run to completion, or has been terminated, a full dedupe job report is available. This can be accessed from the WebUI by navigating to Cluster Management > Job Operations > Job Reports, and selecting ‘View Details’ action button on the desired Dedupe job line item.

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The job report contains the following relevant dedupe metrics.

Report Field

Description of Metric

Start time

When the dedupe job started.

End time

When the dedupe job finished.

Scanned blocks

Total number of blocks scanned under configured path(s).

Sampled blocks

Number of blocks that OneFS created index entries for.

Created dedupe requests

Total number of dedupe requests created. A dedupe request gets created for each matching pair of data blocks. For example, three data blocks all match, two requests are created: One request to pair file1 and file2 together, the other request to pair file2 and file3 together.

Successful dedupe requests

Number of dedupe requests that completed successfully.

Failed dedupe requests

Number of dedupe requests that failed. If a dedupe request fails, it does not mean that the also job failed. A deduplication request can fail for any number of reasons. For example, the file might have been modified since it was sampled.

Skipped files

Number of files that were not scanned by the deduplication job. The primary reason is that the file has already been scanned and hasn’t been modified since. Another reason for a file to be skipped is if it’s less than 32KB in size. Such files are considered too small and don’t provide enough space saving benefit to offset the fragmentation they will cause.

Index entries

Number of entries that currently exist in the index.

Index lookup attempts

Cumulative total number of lookups that have been done by prior and current deduplication jobs. A lookup is when the deduplication job attempts to match a block that has been indexed with a block that hasn’t been indexed.

Index lookup hits

Total number of lookup hits that have been done by earlier deduplication jobs plus the number of lookup hits done by this deduplication job. A hit is a match of a sampled block with a block in index.

Dedupe job reports are also available from the CLI via the ‘ isi job reports view <job_id> ’ command.

From an execution and reporting stance, the Job Engine considers the ‘dedupe’ job to comprise of a single process or phase. The Job Engine events list will report that Dedupe Phase1 has ended and succeeded. This indicates that an entire SmartDedupe job, including all four internal dedupe phases (sampling, duplicate detection, block sharing, & index update), has successfully completed. For example:

# isi job events list –job-type dedupe

Time Message

——————————————————

2019-01-12T13:39:32 Dedupe[1955] Running

2019-01-12T13:39:32 Dedupe[1955] Phase 1: begin dedupe

2019-01-12T14:20:32 Dedupe[1955] Phase 1: end dedupe

2019-01-12T14:20:32 Dedupe[1955] Phase 1: end dedupe

2019-01-12T14:20:32 Dedupe[1955] Succeeded

For deduplication reporting across multiple OneFS clusters, SmartConnect is also integrated with Isilon’s InsightIQ cluster reporting and analysis product. A report detailing the space savings delivered by deduplication is available via InsightIQ’s File Systems Analytics module.

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