Deutsche Bank Joins Hyperledger Project as Premier Member

Deutsche Bank Joins Hyperledger Project as Premier Member 9380

News

May 16, 2018 at 6:21 PM

Hyperledger is an open source collaborative effort dedicated to developing cross-industry blockchain technologies. It is an international participation, hosted by The Linux Foundation, including leaders in finance, banking, Internet of Things, supply chains, manufacturing, and Technology.

Thrilled to announce @DeutscheBank as a Premier member of Hyperledger! https://t.co/dklnrHw5EJ

— Hyperledger (@Hyperledger) May 16, 2018

Hyperledger announced today that Deutsche Bank has come onboard for the project as a Premier Member. Accenture, Airbus, American Express, Baidu, Change Healthcare, Cisco, Daimler, Digital Asset, DTCC, Fujitsu, Hitachi, IBM, Intel, J.P. Morgan, NEC, SAP, Tradeshift and Wanda FFan Technology are other Premier members of the project. The complete list of members can be accessed at https://www.hyperledger.org/members

“Adding a major bank like Deutsche Bank to our list of Premier members demonstrates the value Hyperledger brings to the financial services market,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger. “With their help and global reach, we look forwarding to driving more global production deployments like Know Your Customer (KYC), payments, trading and others based on Hyperledger technologies.”

“As a Premier member, we’re hoping our expertise and global network will help advance open source distributed ledger technologies and allow us to better serve the complex needs of our clients, who look to us to improve their and their trade partners’ financial endeavors,” said Jon Pearson, Head of Deutsche Bank Labs United Kingdom and Ireland.

Hyperledger with the global collaboration of more than 230 esteemed organizations. The support of these members is crucial to the success of Hyperledger.

Image via TheStreet

Related

Related:

  • No Related Posts

Baidu Launches Blockchain Photo Service

The Chinese search engine Baidu launched its blockchain stock photo service to help protect intellectual property in China. The stock photo service is named Totem and went live earlier this week. Totem uses a blockchain network to timestamp and verify submissions for each photograph. The originator’s name is stored and associated with each image using distributed ledger technology.

Baidu intends to leverage its existing resources and expertise in data curation and artificial intelligence to compare circulated images on the internet with data housed in a traceable blockchain. This technology would allow content creators to substantiate cases of intellectual property infringement.

Totem gave the following description of its platform on its website:

Copyright information is permanently written into the blockchain. Based on the credibility of the blockchain and irreconcilable modification, Baidu’s leading artificial intelligence mapping technology is combined to ensure that the dissemination of the work is traceable, reproducible, monitorable and change the copyright of traditional pictures.

BaiduBaidu
Baidu is a Chinese multinational technology company specializing in Internet-related services and products, and artificial intelligence.

Totem has attracted stock images partners already, with the Visual China Group joining up, a partner of the stock photo site Getty images, along with 1TU, View Stock and Gaopin. Independent photographers have also signed up for the service.

Despite being released as a complete solution for verifying the ownership of stock photos, there is no description provided for how Totem works. Baidu has not published a whitepaper or any official documentation about its technology – besides a nebulous description that can be read on the company’s website. It also remains unclear what kind of blockchain Baidu intends to use, or if it will be eventually made public.

Baidu and The Blockchain

Totem isn’t Baidu’s first foray into the world of blockchain technology either, with its journey starting in 2017 with Project Hyperledger. The project has a focus on developing blockchain tech across a broad range of industries, stretching from aviation to healthcare. Hyperledger’s membership includes IBM, Intel, Airbus, American Express, J.P Morgan, and Smart Dubai among many others.

CryptoKitties Come of Age With $12 Million in Venture FundingCryptoKitties Come of Age With $12 Million in Venture Funding
Related Story: CryptoKitties Come of Age With $12 Million in Venture Funding

Baidu also introduced its blockchain-as-a service platform in January of this year and followed up with Leci Gou, a game that lets users adopt and raise virtual puppies in February. Leci Gou shares similarities to the famous Ethereum game CryptoKitties, which at one point accounted for 10% of the activity on Ethereum’s blockchain in December last year.

Stock Photographers Embracing Change

Stock photography is one of the latest industries to be disrupted by decentralized technologies, with new companies emerging to take advantage of this latest craze. The companies IPStock and Photochain are the most recent entrants to the market that provide users with a secure platform for buying and selling stock photos.

KodakCoin: A Lesson in Resuscitating a Dying BusinessKodakCoin: A Lesson in Resuscitating a Dying Business
Related Story: KodakCoin: A Lesson in Resuscitating a Dying Business

Traditional competitors are entering the market too, with Kodak’s announcement that it would mint its cryptocurrency for photographers.

The new crypto will let visual content creators verify and determine their rights of ownership – yet Kodak’s plans have yet to materialize.

But Kodak’s CEO Jeff Clarke remains hopeful, as he’s quoted below as saying in an interview about the future relationship between blockchain technology and the photography industry.

For many in the tech industry, ‘blockchain’ and ‘cryptocurrency’ are hot buzzwords, but for photographers who’ve long struggled to assert control over their work and how it’s used, these buzzwords are the keys to solving what felt like an unsolvable problem.

Did you like this article? Join us.

Get real-time updates and breaking news.

Follow @crypto_slateJoin Us on Telegram

DISCLAIMER: Our writers’ opinions are solely their own and do not reflect the opinion of CryptoSlate. None of the information you read on CryptoSlate should be taken as investment advice. Buying and trading cryptocurrencies should be considered a high-risk activity. Please do your own due diligence before making any investment decisions. Finally, CryptoSlate takes no responsibility should you lose money trading cryptocurrencies.

Related:

  • No Related Posts

China’s Fourth Industrial Revolution: Artificial Intelligence

Bottom Line:China’s nationwide pursuit to become the world leader in artificial intelligence (AI) is an attempt to not only match U.S. economic power, but to bypass it geo-strategically. While Beijing’s involvement is spurred by economic ambitions, it has made it clear that the development of AI will simultaneously be for military applications that could change the character of warfare and place the U.S. geopolitical disadvantage.

Background: China has quickly spurred its innovation engines into action, seeking to leapfrog U.S. military and technological supremacy by becoming the world leader in AI development. Their unique brand of capitalism and government control has enabled bottom-up innovation that is broadly guided by the hand of the Chinese Community Party. China’s whole-of-nation approach means the U.S. has found itself in a race against a strategic competitor to harness the power of machine learning and artificial intelligence.

Ambassador Joseph DeTrani, former Director for East Asia Operations, CIA

“The future of A.I., for commercial and security application, appears unlimited; China will pursue this new technology with speed and significant state and private resources.”

  • China’s national push toward development in AI can be seen just in the sheer number of recent Chinese academic publications on the subject. Since 2014, China has surpassed the U.S. in number of published papers on deep learning and continued to increase its output by nearly 20 percent in 2016. While increases in the quantity of AI publications do not necessarily correspond with advances in quality, it is clear that China is seeking to advance its AI development significantly.
  • In March 2017, China established its National Engineering Laboratory of Deep Learning Technology under the leadership of Baidu. The purpose of the new research center involved exploring image and voice recognition, biometric identification, and new forms of human-machine interaction.
  • In July 2017, Beijing’s State Council released the New Generation AI Development Plan, laying out the nation’s strategy to lead the world in AI development by 2030. Broadly modeled off of the Obama administration’s 2016 push for a revolution in artificial intelligence, Beijing’s initiative includes building out indigenous capacity to create a $150 billion Chinese AI industry – led by tech giants Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent – as well as through foreign mergers and acquisitions, equity investments, venture capital and the establishment of research and development centers abroad.
  • There are a number of societal and organization characteristics that China possesses that might put it at an advantage in the development of advanced AI. The first is China’s particular brand of socialist market economy affords the government a significant amount of control and involvement in market forces. Not only does this mean Beijing can push for over-the-horizon innovation where market forces would typically fail, but it also has created a unique level of cooperation between Chinese tech companies and the government. This gives Beijing significant economic leverage to expand its political clout around the world, including through its One Belt, One Road initiative.
  • Perhaps most notably is the Chinese government’s nearly complete access to consumer data – the lifeblood of machine learning and artificial intelligence – with little to no privacy protections. The Chinese startup Yitu Tech, which maintains a close relationship with state security, shares access to the biometric data of 1.8 billion Chinese that it feeds into its facial recognition software. But while the Chinese government continues to maintain complete access to the data of its citizens – and shares it with industry partners – there does seem to be a recent effort to create data privacy protections among industry similar to the EU’S General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), which could have long-term implications for Chinese AI development.

Ambassador Joseph DeTrani, former Director for East Asia Operations, CIA

“China is dedicating significant resources to research and development on all types of artificial intelligence, with commercial, security and military application. China’s recent five-year plan reportedly committed well-over one hundred billion dollars to AI, indicative of the leadership’s keen interest in eventually becoming the world’s leader in AI. As China moves forward with its One Belt One Road Initiative and the Asia Infrastructure Investment Bank, projects that reach out to more than eighty countries, AI will become an integral part of these international infrastructure projects. It will permit China to apply and further develop their AI capabilities, eventually securing their leadership role with this new multifunctional technology.”

William Carter, Deputy Director, Technology Policy Program, CSIS

“From China’s perspective, AI will be like mobile and desktop computing before that. It will be an economic revolution that creates and entire new generation of digital capabilities in physical systems that they can sell and embed around the world. So they see the development of AI as an opportunity to develop a presence and set the baseline for how other countries around the world, particularly in the developing world, interact with technology and data.”

Issue: China’s pursuit of AI extends to the People’s Liberation Army (PLA) through a national strategy of military-civil fusion. This militarization of AI has far-reaching implications for how China will hold political sway abroad and conduct itself militarily – a strategy referred to as “intelligentized” warfare, according to a November 2017 report by the Center for New American Security. Broadly speaking, advancements in Chinese AI have the capacity to support military command and control, intelligence deduction, advance combat training and military readiness, tailor and scale cyber and information operations against opponents and create counterintelligence vulnerabilities.

Elsa Kania, Adjunct Fellow, Technology and National Security Program, CNAS

“Notably, China’s New Generation AI Development Plan explicitly highlights an approach of military-civil fusion to ensure that advances in AI can be readily leveraged for national defense. To actualize this objective, China will continue to establish and normalize mechanisms for coordination and collaboration among scientific research institutes, universities, enterprises and military industry units, while seeking to ensure that military and civilian innovation resources will be ‘constructed together and shared.’ This strategy is advanced through CCP’s Military-Civil Fusion Development Commission, established in early 2017 under the leadership of Xi Jinping himself. Consequently, the boundaries between military and civilian advances will remain highly blurred in AI.”

Ambassador Joseph DeTrani, former Director for East Asia Operations, CIA

“Given China’s ambitious military modernization program, and its focus on the space and cyber domains, it’s fair to assume that AI will be incorporated into China’s C4ISR – Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance and Reconnaissance. Its immediate application to China’s activities in the South China Sea and pursuit of an anti-access/area denial is obvious.”

  • Much like the Pentagon’s Third Offset strategy, Beijing is seeking to embed increasingly sophisticated AI into robotics for autonomous operating guidance and control systems. Automation is already being incorporated in the China’s unmanned aerial, ground and maritime vehicles. Manned-unmanned teaming operations, such as those involving the Caihong-5 (CH-5) aerial drone or the D3000 stealthy maritime combat drone, could be particularly useful in controlling the airspace and waters beyond the Chinese mainland.
  • Should Chinese drones be linked through neural networks to create swarms as part of China’s anti-access area denial (A2/AD) strategy in the South China Sea, Beijing could hinderS. freedom of navigation in the region. In December 2017, at the Guangzhau Airshow, the Chinese demonstrated the largest swarm to date, flying over 1,000 small drones in formation. This was following a display of 119 fixed-wing drones flying in formation in June.
  • Aside from pursing autonomy within military robotics, China seeks to leverage AI as an enabler of enhanced decision-making and intelligence analysis. Advances in the automation for aggregating different sensors and processing that information – such as for satellite imagery – shorten the decision-making time for strategic advantage, perhaps even predicting military maneuvers of opponents in advance. China already plans on equipping its nuclear submarines with AI capable of filtering through large quantities of data to support commanders’ decision-making.
  • There is a discussion however that with the advent of advanced AI and machine learning, the tempo of decision-making could surpass human cognitive ability; meaning humans could eventually be removed from the decision loop over military command and control.
  • The more data fed into AI systems to assist in decision-making, the more likely these systems will also be useful in virtual war gaming. Given the PLA’s actual lack of combat experience, such data-informed war gaming could help better train a Chinese military for a confrontation with a capable opponent such as the United States.
  • Perhaps the most likely medium where there is strong utility for advances in AI is in psychological warfare and cyber operations. Automation allows scale, while machine learning facilitates tailored messaging and attacks. China could leverage AI to profile targets through their social media and customize attacks to shape and amplify Chinese companies such as iFlyTek are already capable of spoofing video and audio recordings, a potentially disruptive tool for psychological operations. Chinese hackers equipped with advanced AI could similar customize attacks or overwhelm network defenders with hoards of autonomous hacking bots engaged in highly tailored spear-phishing campaigns at scale.
  • China’s development of AI to better enable its internal surveillance and censorship regime also has implications for counterintelligence. The ubiquity of closed-circuit cameras and invasive monitoring of online communications in China – along with the advent of biometric data-crunching AI – mean that maintaining secrecy of U.S. intelligence operatives in the country will become more and more difficult. China will also be able to filter through U.S. data – such as the over 20 million profiles of U.S. federal employees stolen from the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) discovered in June 2015 – and create a profile of potential targets for their own intelligence collection.

Ambassador Joseph DeTrani, former Director for East Asia Operations, CIA

“Currently, China’s success in the utilization of AI for internal security purposes (like facial recognition), as a complement to the work they’re doing on bio-metrics, are tools available to the Ministry of Public Security for monitoring and surveillance purposes.”

William Carter, Deputy Director, Technology Policy Program, CSIS

“Where I am really concerned, and where I think they are making a lot of progress, is in counterintelligence. The Chinese are collecting a huge amount of data on their own people. They are collecting as much data as they can on foreigners. They collect the fingerprints and huge amount of data on every individual that enters China and they are feeding all of this into databases that are supported by machine learning and artificial intelligence to identify potential security threats to the Chinese government – potential foreign operatives who are actually coming to China to recruit people to try to extract classified information. They are also using to identify Chinese who could be coopted by foreign governments and foreign intelligence services. That is a huge issue for us.”

Elsa Kania, Adjunct Fellow, Technology and National Security Program, CNAS

“Consistent with its asymmetric approach to military modernization, the PLA could leverage AI to target perceived weaknesses in U.S. ways of warfare. For instance, the PLA has concentrated on advancing integrated network-electronic warfare to target U.S. battle networks, and the capability to leverage AI, whether in enabling cognitive electronic warfare or autonomous cyber operations, could further enhance these capabilities. The PLA recognizes the potential advantages of swarms to saturate the defenses of high-value U.S. weapons platforms, such as fighter jets or aircraft carriers, even depicting such a scenario in its Military Museum in Beijing. To offset current U.S. dominance in the undersea domain, the PLA is also developing autonomous underwater vehicles and reportedly planning to introduce ‘AI-augmented brainpower’ into its nuclear submarines to achieve an advantage. At present, the PLA’s capabilities for information support remain a limitation on its capacity to project power. However, the introduction of AI to enhance intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance (ISR) could increase the efficiency of these capabilities. In addition, the PLA appears to be incorporating AI technologies into its next-generation missiles and likely also missile defenses, seeking to enhance their precision and lethality. It remains to be seen whether the PLA may incorporate AI in support of its nuclear systems, which would raise questions about the potential impact on nuclear and strategic stability.”

Response:Since 2014, the U.S. military has already begun its Third Offset strategy by seeking to work more closely with U.S. tech giants in Silicon Valley and elsewhere, and to quickly acquire cutting-edge technology for military and intelligence purposes. And while China may have certain societal and organization advantages to their quick development of AI, it is possible these could leave them open to countermeasures in the long-term.

  • One of the potential organizational inhibitions of the U.S. incorporating advanced AI into its own military and intelligence systems surround requirements of justifying actions – particularly lethal action – within a democracy. For most AI and machine learning systems, how they come to the conclusions that they do remains a “black box” and therefore developing “explainable” AI so that decision-making can trust and are held accountable for the outputs of AI systems is important. China is not necessarily held back by the same constraints to justify their actions.
  • In the long-term, however, this could open China up to countermeasures against their AI such as data manipulation or corruption or the modification of its protocols. Without the societal incentive to peer into AI decision-making to justify its conclusions, it would be difficult to detection when the U.S. might be employing these countermeasures that could lead Chinese military commanders and systems astray.

Elsa Kania, Adjunct Fellow, Technology and National Security Program, CNAS

“The U.S. military must recognize the PLA’s emergence as a true peer competitor and reevaluate the nature of U.S.-China military and technological competition. As China seeks to become a scientific superpower to rival the U.S., this race to innovate is emerging as a new frontier of strategic competition. In recent history, the U.S. has possessed clear, often uncontested military-technical advantage, but it may not be feasible to achieve a similar edge in AI, given China’s rise and the rapid diffusion of these technologies. Consequently, U.S. military advantage might be best assured through leveraging perhaps more enduring advances in the human and organizational dimensions of innovation in which the Chinese military may struggle.”

Anticipation: The strategic race for AI dominance between the U.S. and China is only beginning and it remains uncertain who will lead the world in this new technology. U.S. tech giants such as Alphabet, Apple, Google, Amazon, Facebook, and Microsoft have remained at the forefront AI development, despite Chinese advancements, and will continue to innovate using their unique multinational positions. But China will took expand its industry to facilitate AI innovation along its One Belt, One Road trade initiative.

William Carter, Deputy Director, Technology Policy Program, CSIS

“If you are talking about access to data, U.S. companies are in a better position than China’s because of their global footprint and also as a result of that global footprint, they have information on a wider and more diverse array of people. And ultimately it is studying the similiarities and differences across heterogenous groups in a large dataset where you can get the most value for AI. Chinese companies have data on Chinese people. They do not have a large international footprint, they do not have a lot of foreign customers. U.S. companies have massive datasets on billions of users around the world. That is a strength.”

Elsa Kania, Adjunct Fellow, Technology and National Security Program, CNAS

“As AI catalyzes a fourth industrial revolution, China intends to lead it, leveraging AI to enhance its economic dynamism and military capabilities alike. As China builds a vibrant digital economy, the commercial applications of AI and big data could transform the Chinese economy and society, from healthcare to self-driving cars. Pursuant to the One Belt, One Road strategy, there is a new focus on the digital Silk Road, through which China will seek to leverage the advantages of sharing big data and enhancing digital connectivity, while advancing international scientific cooperation in AI. As an AI power and first mover, China also intends to lead in the formulation of technical standards and mechanisms for global governance of AI, perhaps reinforcing its own interests and advantages in the process.”

Levi Maxey is a cyber and technology analyst at The Cipher Brief. Follow him on Twitter @lemax13.

Related:

  • No Related Posts

China’s Search Engine Giant Baidu Launches New CryptoKitties-like Pet Project

Baidu, China’s search engine giant, has launched a CryptoKitties-like service called “Leci Gou” (similar to “Let’s Go”). This project is a part of its wider work with Blockchain technology.

CryptoKitties was the first game based on the blockchain. This game allows users to collect and breed digital cats which belong to the individual owners and can’t be cloned by other users. A cat owner can breed his/her cat by changing its features, adding colors and make their cats distinguish from other pets present in the marketplace. Once the owner has done with the breeding of the cat, it can be sold to other users.

The popularity of CryptoKitties has encouraged to create other games based on the similar concept and news games, such as Fishbank. Games like CryptoPets and CryptoPuppies are to be released very soon.

“Leci Gou”, like CryptoKitties, allows players to collect, buy and sell virtual breedable pets. However, in a new service not cats, but dogs live on the blockchain. The service was developed by Baidu’s in-house blockchain team, which is also a member of the Linux Foundation-led Hyperledger consortium.

The website lists various digital puppies with different designs and prices. Each of them is ranked by their scarcity. Each of the cryptodoggies has a unique set of “genes” and their purchase is recorded on the blockchain. The cryptodoggies have eight special attributes, a combination of which will make each virtual dog unique. These attributes include ordinary, unusual, remarkable, epic, mythological, and legendary.

The cryptodoggies can be purchased with special credit points received from Baidu and not through money transfers. Users who have Baidu accounts can adopt one crypto-dog and receive 1000 points for free on the marketplace. Also points can be given for using Baidu’s products. Users can spend them through their Baidu wallet. These points can be further used to trade with other “owners” and serve no other function.

According to Baidu, the project is available for public use but is still being tested and further developed. It is still unlear if Baidu will use an internal or a public network for handling the new project.

This new game is a part of Baidu’s initiatives related to the work on the Blockchain. In October 2017, Baidu joined Hyperledger’s global alliance for developing blockchain. In January this year, the giant launched its own blockchain-as-a-service (BaaS) platform.

Related:

  • No Related Posts

Analysis: China’s AI revolution threatens US

A new report from the Washington-based Center for a New American Security raised the alert level of the US defence community over China’s rise as an artificial intelligence (AI) superpower, one that could effectively destroy the American military by 2030.

The meticulous report no doubt will send a chill through the halls of the Pentagon.

The report, ‘Battlefield Singularity: Artificial Revolution, and China’s Future Military Power’, by Elsa Kania, paints a disturbing picture of China’s AI military modernisation programmes. Kania, as co-founder of the China Cyber and Intelligence Studies Institute, is well suited to write the investigative report using available Chinese-language open-source materials that reveal China’s military thinking and progress on AI.

Kania reported that China’s military is pursuing advances in ‘impact and disruptive military applications of AI’ and given it ‘high-level priority within China’s national agenda for military-civil fusion’. The goal is to become the world’s ‘premier innovation centre’ in AI by 2030.

According to the report, the Chinese military believes the advent of AI could fundamentally change the very character of warfare itself. Transforming itself from today’s ‘informatised’ warfare to ‘intelligentised’ warfare, in which AI will be critical to military power.

The result of this change would be the start of a major shift from China’s strategic approach, ‘beyond its traditional asymmetric focus on targeting US vulnerabilities to the offset-oriented pursuit of competition to innovate’.

China’s military is seeking ‘leapfrog development’ to achieve a ‘decisive edge’ in terms of ‘trump card weapons’ that prove a critical edge in ‘strategic frontline technologies’ against the US during a war. The report pointed out that the magnitude of Chinese publications in ‘deep learning’ has already exceeded the US as of 2014, and China ranks second in AI patent applications with 15,754 in total filed as of late 2016.

In July, China released the New-Generation AI Development Plan that articulated its ambition to lead the world in AI by 2030, becoming the premier global AI innovation centre. ‘Under this strategic framework, China will advance a three-dimensional agenda in AI: tackling key problems in research and development, pursuing a range of products and applications, and cultivating and expanding AI industry.’

This will include support for AI technologies that could result in paradigm shifts, including brain-inspired neural network architectures and quantum-accelerated machine learning. ‘The plan calls for building up national resources for indigenous innovation and pursuing continued advances in big data, swarm intelligence and human-machine hybrid intelligence…’

The report noted that Chinese teams dominated the ImageNet Large-Scale Visual Recognition Challenge, an AI computer vision contest, in 2016 and 2017. For the first time, at the 2017 annual meeting of the Association of the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence, China submitted an equal number of accepted papers compared to the US.

Then in November, Yitu Tech, a Chinese facial recognition start-up, took first place in the Facial Recognition Prize Challenge hosted by the Intelligence Advanced Projects Agency (IARPA). What the reader might find disturbing is that the Maryland-based IARPA is under the US Office of the Director of National Intelligence, which funds research across a range of technical areas, including mathematics, computer science, physics, chemistry, biology, neuroscience, linguistics, political science and cognitive psychology.

IARPA’s activities would be a natural fit for the Chinese Communist Party as it increases social control and stability through ‘new techniques for policing, censorship and surveillance, such as the installation of millions of surveillance cameras enhanced with AI technology’.

The report highlighted concerns the US should have on cooperative efforts with China. Chinese investments in Silicon Valley AI have fuelled the debate on whether the US Committee for Foreign Investment should expand reviews of Chinese high-tech investments, especially in AI. For example, the report pointed out the USAF became concerned after Chinese investment in Neurala, an AI start-up known for ‘innovative deep learning technology that can make more reactive robots’. The company is building the ‘Neurala Brain’ with a deep-learning neural network software.

Between 2012 and mid-2017, Chinese technology investments amounted to $19 billion in the US with particular focus on AI, robotics and augmented or virtual reality, said the report. In May 2014, Baidu Inc. established its Silicon Valley Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. In June 2014, Qihoo 360 Technology Co, a Chinese cybersecurity company, and Microsoft established a partnership in AI that focused on AI and mobile Internet.

In November 2015, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Institute of Automation (CASIA) and Dell established the Artificial Intelligence and Advanced Computing Joint Laboratory, which is pursuing development of cognitive systems and deep-learning technologies.

In January 2016, BEACON (Bio/computational Evolution in Action CONsortium), a centre located at Michigan State University, received funding from the US government via the National Science Foundation to establish the Joint Research Center of Evolutionary Intelligence and Robotics, headquartered at Shantou Technical University, also in partnership with the Guangdong Provincial Key Laboratory of Digital Signal and Image Processing.

In October 2016, Huawei Technologies devoted $1 million in funding to a new AI research partnership with the University of California, Berkeley. In April 2017 Tencent announced plans to open its first AI research centre in Seattle. That same month, Baidu Inc acquired xPerception, a US start-up specialising in computer vision.

The US is not the only accomplice. In 2011 and 2012, the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) established five research centres with Chinese universities that included centres on intelligent systems, data mining, quantum computation and AI. In 2017, UTS partnered with the China Electronics Technology Group (CETC) focusing on big data, AI and quantum technologies.

In 2014 Chinese drive-system maker Best Motion created a research and development centre at the University of Nottingham to develop high-quality servo drive systems for use in AI and robotics. In 2016 the Torch Innovation Precinct at the University of New South Wales was established as a joint China-Australia science and technology partnership to research military-relevant technologies, such as unmanned systems.

In March of this year the Hangzhou Wahaha Group constructed three AI centres in China and Israel as a collaboration between CASIA and the University of Haifa. In July, China, France and the Netherlands renewed an agreement for a joint Sino-European Laboratory in Computer Science, Automation and Applied Mathematics, in partnership with CASIA with a major focus on AI.

If there was one turning point in Chinese military attitudes towards AI it was in March 2016 during the World Go Summit when Google-owned DeepMind’s AlphaGo beat world champion, Lee Sedol. Lee’s defeat ‘captured the PLA’s imagination at the highest levels, sparking high-level seminars and symposiums on the topic’, the report said.

There was also a rise in Chinese military analysis of the US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency’s programme Deep Green, which is a system that supports commanders’ decision-making on the battlefield through advanced predictive capabilities, including the ‘generation of courses of action, evaluation of options and assessment of the impact of decisions’.

As recently as September, the China Institute of Command and Control (CICC)sponsored the first Artificial Intelligence and War-Gaming National Finals, convened at the National Defense University’s Joint Operations College. ‘It involved a ‘human-machine confrontation’ between top teams and an AI system called CASIA-Prophet 1.0, which was victorious over human teams by a score of 7 to 1.’

Chinese military thinkers now want ‘intelligentisation of warfare that could result in a trend toward battlefield singularity’. Under these conditions, humans would no longer have capacity to remain directly ‘in the loop’, but would still possess ultimate decision-making authority or ‘human on the loop’, i.e. ‘exercising supervisory control’.

Chinese military strategists want to develop synergies between intelligentised or autonomous systems and directed-energy weapons that will enable ‘light warfare’ involving the fusion of real-time information and ‘zero-hour’ attacks. This will include all forms of military weapons. Chinese AI start-up IFlytek is working with the Chinese military on a voice recognition and synthesis module for intelligence processing for this very reason.

Of particular concern is the Chinese military’s Strategic Support Force (SSF) that seeks to build up advanced cyber warfare capabilities, leveraging big data and machine learning. According to the report, the SSF’s Information Engineering University has developed methods to detect and mitigate distributed denial of service (DDoS) attacks through pattern matching, statistical analysis and machine learning, as well as to detect advanced persistent threat detection based on big data analysis.

China’s national strategy of military-civil fusion enables China to transfer dual-use technological advances to build up military capabilities while promoting economic growth. The report advised the US government to compete and counter Chinese AI advances, and the Pentagon should consider supporting research to track the China’s AI defence innovation ecosystem.

Further, the report recommended reforms to laws designed to constrain ‘illicit and problematic’ technology transfers and changes on how the Committee on Foreign Investment decides what investments and acquisitions are a threat to national security.

Related:

  • No Related Posts

Western companies on stage with authoritarians for China’s online marketplace

As a rising China seeks a bigger say in how global rules are shaped, to match its weight as the world’s second largest economy, no area is as vexed or as crucial as the internet.

Just how vexed was on display this week as senior executives of the United States’ biggest technology companies shared the limelight at China’s World Internet Conference with the Communist Party’s top authoritarian theorist, Wang Huning.

More Tech Talk Videos

null

Video duration
00:47

World Internet Conference releases new …

World Internet Conference releases new technologies

Eighteen latest achievements and innovations of Internet science were released at the Release Ceremony for World Leading Internet Scientific and Technological Achievements.

Up Next

Facebook launches messenger for kids

null

Video duration
01:12

null

Video duration
01:12

Facebook launches messenger for kids

Facebook launches messenger for kids

Facebook has released a limited preview of a messaging app designed to appeal to a new generation, as many young users prefer Snapchat.

Up Next

What is net neutrality?

null

Video duration
00:48

null

Video duration
00:48

What is net neutrality?

What is net neutrality?

In the US, the FCC is set to dismantle net neutrality rules that require internet providers to give consumers equal access to all content online. Here’s how net neutrality works.

Up Next

Uber’s uncertain future

null

Video duration
02:23

null

Video duration
02:23

Uber’s uncertain future

Uber’s uncertain future

Despite Travis Kalanick’s resignation, there are plenty of businesses that have continued to grow after losing their founder chief executives.

Up Next

iPhone X Face ID put to the test

null

Video duration
00:40

null

Video duration
00:40

iPhone X Face ID put to the test

iPhone X Face ID put to the test

The new facial recognition technology replaces the fingerprint sensor found on other iPhones. How well does it work?

Up Next

Saudi Arabia’s first robot citizen

null

Video duration
00:55

World Internet Conference releases new technologies

Eighteen latest achievements and innovations of Internet science were released at the Release Ceremony for World Leading Internet Scientific and Technological Achievements.

Google and Facebook are banned in China, and Microsoft’s Skype was recently blocked. Yet the companies got star billing at a conference where government and police speakers from Iran, Russia and Turkey also compared notes on how to restrict the free flow of information.

So why were Google president Sundar Pichai and Facebook vice-president Vaughan Smith there? Simply because the Internet’s old order wants access to the world’s biggest e-commerce market – 700 million Chinese with smartphones.

A night view of Wuzhen International Internet Exhibition and Conference Centre

A night view of Wuzhen International Internet Exhibition and Conference Centre Photo: Sanghee Liu

China’s online behemoths – Baidu, Alibaba and Tencent – have gained rapidly on Silicon Valley. Tencent, maker of social media app WeChat, last month eclipsed Facebook with a $US522 billion ($693 billion) market value.

Apple chief executive Tim Cook gave a keynote speech, declaring: “Technology itself doesn’t want to be good. It doesn’t want to be anything.

Advertisement

“It is up to all of us to make sure technology is infused with humanity.”

You will now receive updates fromBreaking News Alert

Breaking News Alert

Get the latest news and updates emailed straight to your inbox.

By submitting your email you are agreeing to Fairfax Media’s terms and conditions and privacy policy.

At the Chinese government’s request, Apple has removed Chinese access to Virtual Private Networks, apps that allowed iPhone users to leap the Great Firewall that cordons off China’s 750 million internet users.

Former foreign minister Bob Carr is greeted by Cai Mingzhao, the president of China's Xinhua News Agency, after ...

Former foreign minister Bob Carr is greeted by Cai Mingzhao, the president of China’s Xinhua News Agency, after delivering a speech on the social impact of the internet. Photo: Sanghee Liu

Did Silicon Valley’s turnout at the Wuzhen conference show that other companies are also prepared to “follow the rules” to make it in China, as Alibaba founder Jack Ma advised?

The annual conference is a showcase for how Xi Jinping’s goal of China becoming “an influential country in cyberspace” and world leader in IT is progressing.

Wang Huning, a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party.

Wang Huning, a member of the Politburo Standing Committee of the Chinese Communist Party. Photo: Sanghee Liu

A benchmark study soberly reported that the US continued to lead the world in internet development and innovation, spurred by Silicon Valley, but China was a close second, and spending big.

China’s world-first photonic Quantum computer, and world-beating supercomputing team, were acclaimed and Wang, newly installed to the Politburo Standing Committee, said in his first public speech that China’s digital economy is “on the fast train”. Cross-border e-commerce reached a value of $13.5 trillion last year.

Ran Chengqi, director of the China Satellite Navigation Office, introduces BeiDou Navigation Satellite System World ...

Ran Chengqi, director of the China Satellite Navigation Office, introduces BeiDou Navigation Satellite System World Internet Conference. Photo: Sanghee Liu

But Wang also laid out the key rule that China applies as the gatekeeper to its parallel universe of the internet, where great leaps in digital convenience for consumers come with the tradeoff of constant population surveillance and censorship. China’s term for it is “cyberspace sovereignty”.

This was the link to the Wuzhen conference’s second purpose: China and Russia want an international treaty – a big global rule – to stop other countries interfering with their restricted national internet regimes.

The push is being made in the name of “cyber security”, against a scary backdrop of wild global cyber attacks.

Kapersky Labs founder Eugene Kapersky says he expects his anti-virus company to find 90 million malicious samples this year.

But the biggest threat to global infrastructure was the growth of “complicated, professional projects”, of which 80-90 per cent are state-sponsored attacks, he said. Kapersky, a Russian, would not say which states were responsible.

The issue of cyber security has become crucial for the major powers. Harvard University Professor Joseph Nye, best known for coining the term “soft power”, compared cyber conflict to nuclear weapons.

“The two technologies are different but [both are] highly disruptive,” he said. It took 20 years for major states to agree to cooperative “norms” to avoid conflict on nuclear weapons, and said the norms to restrain cyber conflict were following a similar, difficult timetable.

Frederick Douzet, of France’s Insitute of National Defence Studies, said that as the advent of global cyber crises like Wannacry should be drawing nations closer together to stop malicious actors, instead old geopolitical distrusts about the state use of cyber crime for intelligence and warfare was having the opposite effect.

The Brookings Institution’s Professor Cheng Li said: “There is no equivalent to mutually assured destruction in cyberspace. Major powers must work together now before it is too late.”

A cyber crime convention the US and the Council of Europe signed in 2001 allows parties to conduct digital cross-border investigations without seeking the other nation’s permission for data access. Multiple Russian ministry speakers at Wuzhen expressed fierce opposition to that convention.

China is funding a United Nations Inter-governmental Expert Group on Cybercrime to draft an alternative: the world’s first cyber security convention.

But the group’s South African chairman conceded on Monday the members would struggle to find agreement, and Nye said progress was “likely impossible” as the group focused on state sovereignty and had sidelined human rights and internet content.

Meanwhile, China’s massive digital growth is pulling private technology companies away from the question of values in favour of wanting to play in this massive market – should they ever be allowed in on Beijing’s terms.

Google, Microsoft and Apple were eager in Wuzhen to dismiss public fears and talk up the potential of Artificial Intelligence and big data, two technologies that have been prioritised by Xi.

Google’s Pichai declared there had been “an important shift from a mobile-first world to an AI-first world”. Microsoft said its chat bot XiaoIce was “born in China”.

But in the absence of Western privacy concerns, Chinese competitors have made their products pervasive through the untrammelled use of big data.

Facial recognition software has begun to be used by Chinese police to identify “criminals” in a public crowd, and the artificial intelligence technology was proudly on display. Telecommunications network China Unicom explained its use of big data collected from monitoring the texts and internet browsing of mobile phone subscribers could help marketing companies, in addition to the government.

Tencent’s Pony Ma said WeChat was using Artificial Intelligence to allow public transport users in Chinese cities to scan a barcode on their smartphone at subway turnstiles instead of queuing for a ticket.

“It also gives [authorities] access to the real identity of the passengers. It can alleviate congestion and increase safety and security,” Ma said.

Related:

Baidu Joins Global Blockchain Group

Updates: eBay Authenticate, Square Invests in Eventbrite PART 1 OF 10
By Naomi Gray | Oct 27, 2017 11:09 am EDT

Baidu becomes Hyperledger Premier member

Baidu (BIDU), China’s (MCHI) leading Internet search engine company, recently joined a global blockchain group. The company became a Premier member of Hyperledger, a blockchain consortium led by the Linux Foundation. Hyperledger is an open-source global collaboration focused on creating advanced blockchain technologies suited for multiple industries.

Hyperledger brings together leaders in industries such as finance, manufacturing, technology, and the IoT (Internet of Things). As part of Hyperledger, Baidu joins American Express (AXP), IBM (IBM), JPMorgan Chase (JPM), Cisco Systems (CSCO), Daimler, Fujitsu, and Intel (INTC).

Baidu Joins Global Blockchain Group

Interested in BIDU? Don’t miss the next report.

Receive e-mail alerts for new research on BIDU

Success! You are now receiving e-mail alerts for new research. A temporary password for your new Market Realist account has been sent to your e-mail address.

Success! has been added to your Ticker Alerts.

Success! has been added to your Ticker Alerts. Subscriptions can be managed in your user profile.

Baidu blockchain to improve customer experience

“We believe blockchain technology will allow us to better tailor our search technology to our users’ needs by enhancing the way we optimize local tastes and preferences,” said Baidu vice president Zhang Xuyang.

Hyperledger aims to develop common distributed ledger technology that organizations could use to build and deploy robust applications and hardware systems to support their business transactions. The consortium has attracted more than 160 members since the beginning of 2016.

Blockchain presents a $2.3 billion market

Blockchain is the underlying technology of many digital currencies. It works as a transaction processing and record-keeping system. Blockchain has been cited as having multiple benefits, such as minimizing transaction errors, reducing duplicate records, and facilitating faster settlement. Therefore, many organizations see increased operational efficiency with blockchain deployment. According to MarketsandMarkets, the global blockchain market will be worth more than $2.3 billion by 2021, up from $210.2 million in 2016.

Related:

Baidu To Launch A Driverless Bus Next Year

Robin Li, the chairman and chief executive officer of Chinese online search giant Baidu, has revealed that the tech firm plans on launching a fully autonomous bus next year in China. Li was speaking during the WSJ D.Live technology event organized by The Wall Street Journal. Earlier this year Baidu unveiled Apollo, an open-source driverless-car software which it hopes will assist in turning it into a major player in the space.

According to Li, Baidu is partnering with BAIC Motor Corp in order to produce semi-autonomous vehicles running on Apollo on a mass scale by 2019. In the next four years Baidu intends to produce fully autonomous cars on a mass scale together with its business partner.

Apollo software

Baidu’s fully autonomous bus will be produced in partnership with a bus maker in China and will operate on a route that will be specially designated. The Chinese online search giant is betting on its Apollo software to lure motor vehicle manufacturers who might be put off by Google’ driverless car unit, Waymo.

According to Li Baidu’s pitch to car makers is that they will have more control over their data as well as user experience compared to Waymo’s closed system. However most industry experts are of the opinion that the technology of Google’s self-driving unit is the most advanced with its development having started in 2009.

Due to the fact that Apollo is an open source technology, the Chinese online search giant is not counting on software sales as its sole source of revenue. Li pointed out that numerous other business opportunities existed and this included writing insurance policies, selling high-definition maps, simulation systems and data.

Immersive technology experiences

In its self-driving cars Baidu will offer immersive technology experiences complete with interactive entertainment and screens. Baidu spends approximately 15% of the revenue it generates on research and development and this comes to around $1.5 billion. Most of this R&D budget goes to artificial intelligence.

Baidu’s announcement that it will be launching an autonomous bus next year comes in the wake of the online search firm joining the Hyperledger blockchain consortium, a group which is led by Linux Foundation and which concentrates on the development of blockchain technologies that can be used by enterprises. According to Zhang Xuyang, the vice president of Baidu, blockchain could assist in offering a more customized search experience.

“Over the past 17 years, we have striven to fulfill our mission by listening carefully to our users. We’re thrilled to be part of Hyperledger and look forward to collaborating with other

Chinese Search Giant Baidu Joins Hyperledger Blockchain Consortium

Chinese search engine giant Baidu has become the latest member of the Linux Foundation-led Hyperledger blockchain consortium.

In joining the group – which focuses on developing blockchain technologies for enterprises – Baidu will assist the project’s efforts alongside other member companies including Accenture, IBM, JP Morgan, R3, Cisco and SAP, among others.

Explaining the firm’s reasons for joining Hyperledger in a statement, Baidu vice president Zhang Xuyang cited the belief that blockchain could help “better tailor” its search preferences according to users’ needs.

“Over the past 17 years, we have striven to fulfill our mission by listening carefully to our users,” he added. “We’re thrilled to be part of Hyperledger and look forward to collaborating with other members to drive open blockchain solutions forward.”

Brian Behlendorf, executive director of Hyperledger, said of the new member:

“[Baidu’s] deep understanding in connecting users to information and services will be tremendous experience for us to leverage as we look to expand our reach further in Asia and drive more global production deployments of Hyperledger technology.”

The announcement comes just a week after business network company Tradeshift also joined Hyperledger as a member. Over 160 companies, startups and organizations have now joined the consortium since it launched in 2015.

Baidu flags image via Shutterstock

The leader in blockchain news, CoinDesk is an independent media outlet that strives for the highest journalistic standards and abides by a strict set of editorial policies. Have breaking news or a story tip to send to our journalists? Contact us at news@coindesk.com.

Related:

Baidu joins global group to advance blockchain technologies

Baidu joins global group to advance blockchain technologies

Zhang Xuyang, vice-president of Baidu.[Photo provided to chinadaily.com.cn]

Chinese tech company Baidu has become a member of Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies, on Tuesday.

Among more than 160 members of Hyperledger, which is under Linux Foundation and which aims to create common distributed ledger technology that enables organizations to build and run robust, industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware systems to support their individual business transactions, are Accenture, Airbus, American Express, Cisco, CME Group, Daimler, IBM, Intel and J.P. Morgan.

“We’re thrilled to be part of Hyperledger and look forward to collaborating with other members to drive open blockchain solutions forward and to boost setting up of global blockchain standards,” Zhang Xuyang, vice-president of Baidu, said.

“It’s exciting to see a company like Baidu, which serves the world’s largest internet user population, join Hyperledger,” said Brian Behlendorf, executive director of Hyperledger. “Their deep understanding in connecting users to information and services will be tremendous experience for us to leverage as we look to expand our reach further in Asia and drive more global production deployments of Hyperledger technology.”

A 400 million yuan ($60.4 million) asset-backed security, which was backed by Baidu’s blockchain technology, gained approval for issue on the Shanghai Securities Exchange, Shanghai Securities News reported Aug 21. The security is the first blockchain aided exchange-traded ABS in China.

Baidu, as the technology provider, built a blockchain as a service for the security, with all participating parties on this consortium blockchain, including Baidu Finance, the security provider, the brokers, the rating agency and the law firm.

Information on the asset and on the fundraising company were both disclosed via the blockchain. Baidu also ensured the authenticity, inalterability and indestructibility of this data base via the Consensus Mechanism, an algorithm, and the asymmetric cryptography technologies, both features of the blockchain.

 

Related: