Offline Cryptographic Attacks Targeting the Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 Protocol

On August 4, 2018, Jens Steube from the Hashcat project published an article introducing a new method to obtain cryptographic information from wireless traffic that can then be used by an attacker to attempt the offline recovery of the preshared key (PSK) used to secure a Wi-Fi network.

Both the Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA) and the Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 (WPA2) protocols are known to be susceptible to offline cryptographic attacks when a PSK is used as an authentication mechanism. This is not a new vulnerability or a new attack against these protocols. This is a new vector that allows an attacker to obtain the information required to attempt an offline attack against the PSK.

This new method is different from the existing attacks against the PSK because it does not require an attacker to wait for an Extensible Authentication Protocol over LAN (EAPOL) authentication exchange, capture it, and proceed to attempt an offline PSK recovery. This new vector allows an attacker to extract the required information from a single wireless frame transmitted during a roaming event. The following conditions for this capture apply:

  • The frame contains a Robust Security Network-Pairwise Master Key Identification (RSN-PMKID) option
  • The wireless infrastructure is configured to use WPA2 with a PSK mode of authentication
  • The wireless infrastructure supports the Proactive Key Caching (PKC) fast roaming option (PMKID roaming)

The wireless frame can be acquired by passively listening to traffic from the wireless network during the roaming.

It is important to note that this method does not make it easier or faster to recover the PSK for a Wi-Fi network. Instead, it is easier for an attacker to collect the information required to conduct a subsequent offline cryptographic attack. The likelihood of a successful recovery of the PSK is highly dependent on the complexity of the PSK in use.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20180809-wpa2

Security Impact Rating: Informational

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Cisco Unified Communications Manager IM&P Service, Cisco TelePresence VCS, and Cisco Expressway Series Denial of Service Vulnerability

A vulnerability in the authentication service of the Cisco Unified Communications Manager IM and Presence (Unified CM IM&P) Service, Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server (VCS), and Cisco Expressway Series could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to cause a service outage for users attempting to authenticate, resulting in a denial of service (DoS) condition.

The vulnerability is due to insufficient controls for specific memory operations. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending a malformed Extensible Messaging and Presence Protocol (XMPP) authentication request to an affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to cause an unexpected restart of the authentication service, preventing users from successfully authenticating. Exploitation of this vulnerability does not impact users who were authenticated prior to an attack.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190605-cucm-imp-dos

Security Impact Rating: High

CVE: CVE-2019-1845

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Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server and Cisco Expressway Series Server-Side Request Forgery Vulnerability

A vulnerability in Cisco TelePresence Video Communication Server (VCS) and Cisco Expressway Series software could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to cause an affected system to send arbitrary network requests.

The vulnerability is due to improper restrictions on network services in the affected software. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by sending malicious requests to the affected system. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to send arbitrary network requests sourced from the affected system.

There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190605-vcs

Security Impact Rating: Medium

CVE: CVE-2019-1872

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Cisco Unified Intelligence Center Remote File Injection Vulnerability

A vulnerability in the dashboard gadget rendering of Cisco Unified Intelligence Center could allow an unauthenticated, remote attacker to obtain or manipulate sensitive information between a user’s browser and Cisco Unified Intelligence Center.

The vulnerability is due to the lack of gadget validation. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by forcing a user to load a malicious gadget. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to obtain sensitive information, such as current user credentials, or manipulate data between the user’s browser and Cisco Unified Intelligence Center in the context of the malicious gadget.

There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190515-cuic-cmdinj

Security Impact Rating: Medium

CVE: CVE-2019-1860

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Cisco NX-OS CLI Command Software Image Signature Verification Vulnerabilities

Multiple vulnerabilities in the Image Signature Verification feature of Cisco NX-OS Software could allow an authenticated, local attacker with administrator-level credentials to install a malicious software image on an affected device.

The vulnerabilities exist because software digital signatures are not properly verified during CLI command execution. An attacker could exploit these vulnerabilities to install an unsigned software image on an affected device.

Note: If the device has not been patched for the vulnerability previously disclosed in the Cisco Security Advisory cisco-sa-20190306-nxos-sig-verif, a successful exploit could allow the attacker to boot a malicious software image.

Cisco has released software updates that address these vulnerabilities. There are no workarounds that address these vulnerabilities.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190515-nxos-sisv2

Security Impact Rating: Medium

CVE: CVE-2019-1811,CVE-2019-1812,CVE-2019-1813

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Cisco NX-OS Software Remote Package Manager Command Injection Vulnerability

A vulnerability in the Remote Package Manager (RPM) subsystem of Cisco NX-OS Software could allow an authenticated, local attacker with administrator credentials to leverage a time-of-check, time-of-use (TOCTOU) race condition to corrupt local variables, which could lead to arbitrary command injection.

The vulnerability is due to the lack of a proper locking mechanism on critical variables that need to stay static until used. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by authenticating to an affected device and issuing a set of RPM-related CLI commands. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to perform arbitrary command injection. The attacker would need administrator credentials for the targeted device.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190515-nxos-rpm-injec

Security Impact Rating: Medium

CVE: CVE-2019-1732

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Cisco FXOS and NX-OS Software Sensitive File Read Information Disclosure Vulnerability

A vulnerability in the implementation of a CLI diagnostic command in Cisco FXOS Software and Cisco NX-OS Software could allow an authenticated, local attacker to view sensitive system files that should be restricted. The attacker could use this information to conduct additional reconnaissance attacks.

The vulnerability is due to incomplete role-based access control (RBAC) verification. An attacker could exploit this vulnerability by authenticating to the device and issuing a specific CLI diagnostic command with crafted user-input parameters. An exploit could allow the attacker to perform an arbitrary read of a file on the device, and the file may contain sensitive information. The attacker needs valid device credentials to exploit this vulnerability.

Cisco has released software updates that address this vulnerability. There are no workarounds that address this vulnerability.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190515-nxos-fxos-info

Security Impact Rating: Medium

CVE: CVE-2019-1734

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Cisco Prime Infrastructure and Evolved Programmable Network Manager Remote Code Execution Vulnerabilities

Multiple vulnerabilities in the web-based management interface of Cisco Prime Infrastructure (PI) and Cisco Evolved Programmable Network (EPN) Manager could allow an authenticated, remote attacker to execute code with root-level privileges on the underlying operating system.

These vulnerabilities exist because the software improperly validates user-supplied input. An attacker could exploit these vulnerabilities by uploading a malicious file to the administrative web interface. A successful exploit could allow the attacker to execute code with root-level privileges on the underlying operating system.

Cisco has released software updates that address these vulnerabilities. There are no workarounds that address these vulnerabilities.

This advisory is available at the following link:
https://tools.cisco.com/security/center/content/CiscoSecurityAdvisory/cisco-sa-20190515-pi-rce

Security Impact Rating: High

CVE: CVE-2019-1821,CVE-2019-1822,CVE-2019-1823

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