Bakong: How Cambodia’s blockchain-based central bank digital currency works

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How it works, the problems it solves and how and why Cambodia’s upcoming CBDC uses blockchain.

Cambodia’s central bank, the National Bank of Cambodia (NBC), will launch a blockchain-based central bank digital currency (CBDC) within a few months, NBC director-general Chea Serey has reported to The Phnom Penh Post.

The initiative is called Bakong and it’s been specifically designed to facilitate financial inclusion across Cambodia. Initially, it will be for domestic payments only, but eventually it’s intended to be used for cross-border payments too.

For the end-user, Bakong will take the form of a mobile payments app, created by the central bank, which lets people send money peer to peer to Bakong-connected phone numbers and make payments by scanning QR codes. Using Bakong requires a bank account, and Bakong payments are made from the user’s bank account. Initially, Bakong accounts are not expected to pay interest.

But how exactly does it work and why does it use blockchain?

What the Bakong blockchain looks like

The Bakong blockchain is an implementation of Hyperledger Iroha, which is a permissioned blockchain framework, with a strong emphasis on modular, safe and easy-to-write smart contracts for managing digital assets.

The consensus algorithm powering Hyperledger Iroha is called Yet Another Consensus (YAC), although, for obvious reasons, this is usually just left as YAC whenever it needs to sound professional.

But the consensus algorithm probably isn’t overly important in this case, because the NBC will be the network’s sole validator. The other non-validating nodes on the network will be commercial banks (and potentially other financial institutions).

The banks involved in the transactions can see details including customer names and transaction details, but the central bank only sees anonymised serial numbers. The digital currency itself is held in Bakong Settlement Accounts.

Participating banks can allocate funds to these Bakong Settlement Accounts by exchanging their existing reserves – held at the central bank – for Bakong money. Commercial banks can then distribute this Bakong money to their customers, which includes both individuals and businesses.

It can (really quite roughly) be visualised like so:

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There are several advantages to using this particular arrangement, compared to other arrangements:

  • Compliance. It doesn’t open up any new money laundering risks, and commercial banks are still responsible for all the compliance legwork in this system.
  • Ease of adoption. This system can be introduced with minimal disruption. Central bank and commercial bank responsibilities remain similar.
  • Low risk. The central bank balance sheet remains the same size and it can limit Bakong Settlement Account balances and cap Bakong money transfer sizes at a level it’s comfortable with.
  • Good data. The central bank doesn’t have undue access to commercial bank customer or payment information, but this data is still available to commercial banks and accessible when needed.

Additionally, some of Hyperledger Iroha’s features perfectly match some of the things the NBC hopes to achieve with Bakong.

The problems it solves

According to the World Bank, more than 40% of the population sends or receives domestic remittances each year, but less than 5% of the population sends remittances through bank accounts. The bulk of those remittances are done with over-the-counter payment service providers, such as with cash payments at Western Union branches. Another large chunk of Cambodia’s domestic remittances each year are just cash deliveries.

Only 22% of Cambodian adults have a bank accounts, but the country also has more mobile phones than people.

The problem, as the NBC described it, is that Cambodia has a very fragmented and cash-heavy payments system. It’s dominated by cash usage and networks of payment service providers, which operate largely separate from the country’s commercial banks.

This exceptionally heavy cash use makes it harder for financial services to bridge that gap.

The main way Bakong solves this problem is by creating an entirely new network to encompass all players, from the central banks to the commercial banks to third party financial services. It’s been designed to be easily accessible to all of these parties, letting them seamlessly transfer value between each other.

Individuals can equally tap into the Bakong network and start enjoying similar levels of financial services directly through their banks, or via the mobile money and over-the-counter payment service providers, who can themselves tap into Bakong via commercial banks.

This accessibility is one of the reasons it’s using blockchain, NBC says. And going forwards, Hyperledger Iroha is specifically designed to make it quick and easy for these participants to start building financial services into the network.

The advantages of Bakong

So far, the network itself probably sounds similar to any other payment app.

But one other key difference between Bakong and other bank apps like WeChat Wallets, Apple Pays and Alipays, is that Bakong payments directly settle in digital currency, while all those other payment methods still rely on banks moving money around behind the scenes. With Bakong payments, you’re actually moving currency as an “object”, rather than simply moving a “claim”.

Object vs Claim payments

The International Monetary Fund characterises this distinction as the difference between “Claim” type payments and “Object” type payments.

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Source and complete explanation

When you make a bank transfer to someone else, what you’re actually transferring to the other person is a “claim” to a certain amount of money held in a bank account. The recipient doesn’t get the actual money, they just become entitled to a certain amount of the money in your bank account. It’s up to your bank and the recipient’s bank to move the actual money between each other at a later date.

Stablecoins are also “claim” payments in this way, because they represent a claim to a certain pool of actual money being held elsewhere.

Bakong payments, however, are actually more akin to something like Bitcoin because both Bitcoin and Bakong are “object” payments. Instead of simply transferring a claim, you’re actually transferring an “object” (the digital currency) that holds value in its own right. Also like Bitcoin, the Bakong currency lives on a blockchain.

The key benefits of Bakong, the reason the NBC created it and the way it uses blockchain technology are primarily built around the advantages of “object” payments rather than “claim” payments.

The benefits of object vs claim payments

“Claim” type money represents a claim on an underlying pool of assets. It’s basically a digital IOU.

So when you make an instant domestic bank transfer of $20 from your bank (Bank A) to the recipient’s bank (Bank B), what actually happens is Bank A sends an IOU for $20 to Bank B. Having received that IOU, Bank B gives $20 of its own money to the recipient.

The banks will then periodically settle up all those IOUs with each other through a central clearinghouse. Theses clearinghouses are typically entirely separate companies with hundreds of their own employees, and their own expenses and revenue streams that they get from charging banks. International transfers are based on a broadly similar system of IOUs.

This is the enormous, expensive, complex system that underlies most payments networks. And it’s all done to create the illusion of instant payments.

These costs are part of the expense of consumer money transfers and financial services. And because all business involves payments, and almost all payments have to go through this system, its costs are also gently baked into almost everything else you’ll ever spend money on, from groceries to entertainment.

However, by swapping out “claim” type currency for a digital “object” type currency, you have a way of making instant payments without all those complicated and expensive things going on in the background. It also lowers the barriers for entry to new financial services companies and prevents banks from using their clearinghouse access to monopolise a country’s financial services industry.

Using digital currency to move from “claim” money to “object” money is just all-around much cheaper, faster and more efficient.

There’s no question of whether digital currency can be better. The real challenge is finding a way of doing it safely and without introducing new problems.

This may be where Bakong’s design really stands out as an example of practical blockchain-based CBDC.

Also watch

Disclosure: The author holds BNB, BTC at the time of writing.

Disclaimer: This information should not be interpreted as an endorsement of cryptocurrency or any specific provider, service or offering. It is not a recommendation to trade. Cryptocurrencies are speculative, complex and involve significant risks – they are highly volatile and sensitive to secondary activity. Performance is unpredictable and past performance is no guarantee of future performance. Consider your own circumstances, and obtain your own advice, before relying on this information. You should also verify the nature of any product or service (including its legal status and relevant regulatory requirements) and consult the relevant Regulators’ websites before making any decision. Finder, or the author, may have holdings in the cryptocurrencies discussed.

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Trend Micro Furthers Its Patent Protection by Joining Industry Group Committed to Fight Patent Infringement

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RightSignature – Stripe Integration

Setting up the Integration

Using the Integration

Signer’s Perspective

Accessing Payment Information

Setting up the Integration

Start by selecting Account in the upper left hand corner, then click Integrations and scroll down to Stripe.

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Next, click Off next to Stripe and you will be redirected to Stripe’s website to either create a new account or Sign In.

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Once completed, you will be returned to RightSignature and receive a notification stating ‘Successfully authorized Stripe,’ and the integration will now show it is turned on.

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Using the Integration

You can add a Collect Payment request field to a Template or one-off document.

On the Place Fields step, click Show More under Request and select the Collect Payment field to place it on the document.

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Once placed, click on Collect Credit Card to assign it to a particular signer, enter Signer Help Text, or check Charge After Executed.

There are two payment options:

Collect Credit Card

Used when the document sender needs to store credit card information in Stripe but does not want to set up an automatic payment at this time.

Make sure to leave Charge After Executed unchecked.

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Charge After Executed

Used when the document sender wants Stripe to set up an automatic payment once the document is fully executed. Credit card information will be stored in Stripe.

The Collect Credit Card box switches to Authorize Payment and a Payment Amount must be entered (in US Dollars only).

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Authorize Payment means the recipient has given an okay to the charge. It does not mean the card will be charged at that moment. Credit cards may be declined after the document is signed.

Signer’s Perspective

The signer will click on the link in the email as with any other document, or go to the website if the template is embedded online.

The payment field will show up as “Credit Card.”

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The signer clicks on “Credit Card” to be taken to either of the following boxes, depending on if Charge After Executed was checked:

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Clicking Save will allow the signer to proceed to the next field in the document. Credit cards may be declined after the document is signed.

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Accessing Payment information

Once signed, the document sender will need to access their Stripe account in order to set up a payment or check the status of a pending payment.

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Clicking on the completed field from within RightSignature will show the specific payment ID associated with the signer. Login to Stripe to locate the customer’s profile.

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Collect Payments with Stripe

Your customers’ credit card information is stored and processed securely by the online payment processing service Stripe which is certified as PCI Service Provider Level 1, the highest certification in the industry.

With Collect Payments, you have the following two options for collecting payments on your RightSignature documents:

  1. Immediately charge the customer a fixed amount. Use this option to collect a payment for a pre-determined amount. The charge is processed immediately when the document is signed.
  2. Store a credit card number for later billing. This option allows you to collect and store the customer’s credit card details, then charge the card as needed in the future or set up a recurring payment plan.

Here’s how it works:

Charge Fixed Amount

You can create a document that immediately charges your signer a fixed amount – on a one-time document, a Reusable Template, or an Online Form.

To send a one-time document, login to RightSignature and click Send a Document. Next, upload your document and designate your signers and options, then click Next Step to proceed to the Document Overlay screen. Once Payments is enabled on your account, you will see the new Payment tool in the toolbox on the left hand side of your document.

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Click the Payment tool, then drag and drop a payment box onto your document. In the Basic Options menu that appears, click the “Select Payment Action” menu and click “Charge Fixed Amount.” Next, enter the amount you’d like to charge. When your document is finished, click Send for Signature.

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When your customer opens your document to sign, the Payment box will appear as a button that reads “Authorize Payment.” Your signer simply clicks on the button, then enters the credit card information, reviews the charge amount, and clicks “Authorize.”

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As soon as your customer signs and submits the document, the credit card data is securely transmitted to Stripe, and the credit card is charged the specified amount.

Collect Credit Card

You can also use the Payments feature to collect credit card information in order to charge your customer later. To do so, create a one-time RightSignature document, Reusable Template, or Online Form, and proceed to the Document Overlay screen. Next, drag and drop a Payment box onto your document. Under the Basic Options tab, navigate to the “Select Payment Action” menu and then click “Collect Credit Card.” When your document is finished, click Send for Signature.

When your customer opens your document to sign it, the Payment box will appear as a button that reads “Add Credit Card.” Your signer clicks the button, then enters the credit card information and clicks “Submit.”

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When your signer is finished signing your document, the credit card information is securely transferred to your connected Stripe account, but your customer will not be charged immediately. Instead, you will access Stripe to charge the customer’s card whenever you need to, or you can setup automatic recurring billing.

To do so, navigate to your RightSignature dashboard and select the document in which you collected your customer’s credit card. Then, scroll down to Payment Details. If the credit card was collected successfully, you will see a green checkmark and the word Success. Click Success, then click the View Customer button to view your customer in Stripe.

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To charge your customer’s card whenever you need to, scroll down to Payments, then click “Create Payment.” Next, input an amount and a description. Then click “Charge Customer.”

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To charge your customer a recurring amount automatically (such as a monthly fee), access the Customer page in Stripe, then scroll down to Subscriptions and click “Add Subscription.” Select an existing subscription plan, or create a new one and click the Add Subscription button.

Viewing Your Payment Information

You can view information about all your previous payments in the RightSignature dashboard. On the dashboard, all your documents that included a payment are marked with a Payment icon. Click on the document in your dashboard to see the full payment information, including a full audit log of the payment history.

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You can also view an overview of your previous payment requests in the RightSignature dashboard under the Payments tab. Here, all your previous payments are listed together for your convenience.

Activating Payments on Your RightSignature Account

Contact our friendly support team to request that the Collect Payments feature be enabled on your account. Next, login to RightSignature and click on Account, then Integrations, and find and click on the Stripe icon. Then, click the Activate button.

You will be prompted to create a new Stripe merchant processing account (a simple, one-page application form). If you already have an account, simply click Login to Stripe at the top of the screen. Once you are finished, your RightSignature account will be linked to your Stripe account and the Payments feature will be activated.


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ShareFile Invoice Billing for customers outside of North America

Beginning September 1, 2016, Citrix Systems will be moving to a new billing system for certain customers of ShareFile, RightSignature, ShareConnect, and/or Podio. Impacted customers should receive all relevant information via email.

If you have been notified of upcoming changes to your bill, please refer to the information below. If you have additional questions beyond what is discussed in this article, please contact ShareFile Customer Care.

I am a ShareFile, RightSignature, ShareConnect, and/or Podio customer that pays by credit card. Will I see any changes to my bill?

No action is needed on your part for this move. As a result of this billing change, you will see a new billing entity on your statement. Please note this does not affect other Citrix products.

I am a ShareFile, RightSignature, ShareConnect, and/or Podio customer that pays by wire transfer (including ACH and EFT). Should I update my billing information?

You will need to change the applicable payment information before your next invoice on or after September 1, 2016. Wire transfer and bank details can be found below:

Wire Transfer Information

Bank Details for ShareFile (Wire Transfer)

Bank Name: Bank of America

Bank Address: 321 Oberlin Road, Raleigh, NC USA

Account Name: ShareFile, LLC

Account Number: 000691099695

Routing Number: 026009593

Swift Number: BOFAUS3N

Email Address for Remittance:

Accounts Receivable Contact: Mary-Beth Cardo

Physical Address: 120 South West Street, Raleigh, NC 27603

Phone Number (Toll-Free): 1-800-441-3453

Phone Number (Int’l Callers): 1-919-745-6329

Bank Details for ShareFile (ACH):

Bank Name: Bank of America

Bank Address: 321 Oberlin Road, Raleigh, NC 27605 USA

Account Name: ShareFile, LLC

Account Number: 000691099695 (checking account)

Routing Number: 053000196

Swift Number: BOFAUS3N

Email Address for Remittance:

Accounts Receivable Contact: Mary-Beth Cardo

Physical Address: 120 South West Street, Raleigh, NC 27603

Phone Number (Toll-Free): 1-800-441-3453

Phone Number (Int’l Callers): 1-919-745-6329

I am a ShareFile, RightSignature, ShareConnect, and/or Podio customer that pays by invoice, at a rate of $250 or more. Will I see changes to my bill?

As a result of this billing change, you will need to change the remittance address for submitting payment as noted below. Note: this does not affect you if you pay for the affected services by recurring credit card charges and this does not affect other Citrix products.

New Remittance Address (beginning September 1, 2016)

ShareFile LLC

120 S West Street

Raleigh, NC 27603

I am a ShareFile, RightSignature, ShareConnect, and/or Podio customer. My current billing date does not occur on the 1st of the month. When and how will I be charged?

No action is needed on your part for this move and the move will not effect pricing.As a result of this billing change, all customers will be moved to a new billing cycle that begins on the first of the month. At the time of your next bill, you will receive a pro-rated charge to account for the change in billing cycle. This means that you will be pro-rated from the end of your last bill-date to the first of the following month. Subsequent bills will then be charged on the first of the month.

I am a ShareFile, RightSignature, ShareConnect, and/or Podio customer. I received an email that my mailing address was not valid. Where can I update this information?

Please sign in to your application and update your mailing address appropriately.


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