The Hyperledger project that operates under the auspices of The Linux Foundation has launched Hyperledger Transact, which promises to make it possible to create smart contracts that can run on multiple blockchain platforms.
This latest Hyperledger initiative promises to create a standard interface for executing smart contracts on multiple distributed ledger implementations. It includes a shared software library that handles the execution of smart contracts, including all aspects of scheduling, transaction dispatch, and state management. Hyperledger Transact also adds smart contract languages, known as “smart contract engines.” That creates a virtual machine or “interpreter” to process smart contracts.
Brian Behlendorf, executive director for the Hyperleder proect with the Linux Foundation, says that while there has been an explosion of innovation involving blockchain technologies, the Linux Foundation is deliberating supporting a total of 14 projects that in some cases overlap with one another in terms of the functionality being provided. Given how early it is in the development of blockchain technologies, the Hyperledger project wants to be in the best position to help rationalize blockchain technologies as they continue to evolve and mature, says Behlendorf.
Those multiple technology platforms not only help spur on innovation, Behlendorf says they also foster competition between providers of different classes of blockchain networks.
In the meantime, Belendorf notes the number of transactions that a blockchain platform can support continues to climb. There are instances in a laboratory environment where 3,500 transactions per second (TPS) has been achieved. No expect blockchain databases to replace relational databases any time soon, but that level of scale suggests there is an opportunity to expand the number of use cases for blockchain platforms, says Behlendorf.
Ultimately, Belendorf expects most of the use cases for an immutable blockchain database will be focused on replacing processes that today require a human signature to complete, especially as digital identities are assigned to end users via multiple blockchain networks.
In the meantime, the number and types of blockchain network services being made available as part of various digital business transformation initiatives is about to explode. The next big issue won’t be so much about the technology as much as it is overcoming the inertia surrounding existing business processes that in some cases have been in place now for decades.
Technology giant Intel has co-sponsored recently announced Hyperledger project which aims to make blockchain programming easier, Forbes reported.
Hyperledger, an open source blockchain project hosted by the Linux Foundation, last month unveiled “Hyperledger Transact” – a new project which, it says, will simplify writing distributed ledger software.
In an online post dated June 27, Hyperledger explained that as the existing solutions for smart contract execution are usually tied to a specific distributed ledger implementation, the code’s reusability is limited. It added:
“Hyperledger Transact will reduce the development effort for writing distributed ledger software by providing a standard interface for executing smart contracts that is separate from the distributed ledger implementation. A shared software library handles all aspects of scheduling, transaction dispatch, and state management.”
Transact takes an “extensible approach” to implementing new smart contract languages called “smart contract engines,” which implements a virtual machine or interpreter that processes smart contracts.
Hyperledger said that the project’s initial code was developed by Bitwise IO and Cargill, with significant influence from Intel’s previous contributions to Hyperledger Sawtooth.
Speaking to Forbes, Intel’s blockchain program director Michael J. Reed said, “We just recently co-sponsored a project in Hyperledger called Transact.”
He explained that to program a blockchain today, developers need to choose the environment that they are going to program for. For example, if they want to program for Ethereum, they would typically pick up solidity and program in solidity so that the contract could be executed in an Ethereum virtual machine.
Transact seeks to simplify the process and allow the code to be run on any blockchain.
“What Transact foretells is a world in which there’s an extensible transaction layer, such that you could program once, for Transact, and your code would run on any blockchain that supports it,” Reed added. “[Transact] was co-sponsored by Intel and IBM, and it was just approved in Hyperledger and announced by them about a week ago.”
IBM may not be as splashy as some of the other tech giants that make big code contributions to open source. But as Chris Ferris, CTO for open technology at IBM says, “we’ve been involved in open source before open source was cool.”
By Ferris’ estimation, IBM ranks among the top three contributors in terms of code commits to open source project and contributors to the various open source communities. “It’s really significant,” he said. “We don’t run around with the vanity metrics the way some others do, but it’s really important to us.”
Ferris can’t quantify IBM’s open source investments. But think about all the different foundations of which IBM is a sponsor, he says. These include the Linux Foundation, Apache Software Foundation, Eclipse Foundation, Open Compute Project, OpenStack Foundation, and Cloud Native Computing Foundation (CNCF), among others.
“Most of the time we are a top-level sponsor, so that’s typically a quarter-million [dollars] a year. Plus all the contributions of engineers to those like CNCF, Kubernetes, and Hyperledger. You add it all up and we probably have as much, if not more, contributions into open source as any of the other leaders. We think it’s vitally important to our success and our strategy.”
And then there’s the company’s pending $34 billion Red Hat acquisition. The move illustrates the importance of open source to IBM’s cloud strategy — “open technology isthe cloud strategy,” Ferris said — but it began way before this purchase.
“If I unwind the stack to the virtualization wars where we were all focused on data center virtualization and VMware seemed to be winning that particular battle, everyone was trying to get in the game,” he said. At the time, IBM had six virtualization products that weren’t interoperable, and that was “very confusing to IBM and our customers.” The company needed to figure out how to put itself in a position to compete against VMware “and we chose OpenStack for that. Rather than spend multiple years trying to smush together six solutions, we felt the best way was to embrace an emerging open source community.”
The company worked with Hewlett Packard, AT&T, and others to make the case for open governance of OpenStack software to co-founder Rackspace. “And then we embraced that for our own private cloud approach,” Ferris said.
Cloud Native and Blockchain
IBM also worked with Google, Docker, Red Hat, and others to launch CNCF to provide open governance for Kubernetes, which has since become the foundation for IBM’s private cloud. More recently it worked with many of those same companies on the Istio project, which is a service mesh management platform. And it also worked closely with Google on Knative, which uses Kubernetes as a bridge between enterprises and serverless deployments. While this and other cloud-native open source projects that IBM contributes to are still in their infancy among enterprise users, “a year-plus down the road, these projects will be very important.”
In addition to these cloud native technologies, IBM worked with the Linux Foundation to establish Hyperledger, contributing 44,000 lines of code and establishing the blockchain group’s first project: Hyperledger Fabric.
The reason for IBM’s commitment to open source is two-fold. “One of the reasons is that’s what our customers are looking for,” Ferris said. “They don’t want to be locked into any one vendor, they want interoperability and affordability, and the way to do that is through open technology.”
The second reason, he said, is that “we do firmly believe it leads to a better outcome. We’re able to innovate more quickly than if we were trying to compete with the rest of the world on our own. We benefit from the ideas of the broader communities and we’re able to contribute to those as well.”
Hyperledger Transact is one of the Hyperledger projects hosted by The Linux Foundation. Hyperledger Transact represents the continued evolution at Hyperledger towards greater componentization to allow rapid responsible adoption of new blockchain technologies. Hyperledger Transact will reduce the development effort for writing distributed ledger software by providing a standard interface for executing smart contracts that is separate from the distributed ledger implementation. A shared software library handles all aspects of scheduling, transaction dispatch, and state management. Hyperledger Transact takes an extensible approach to implementing new smart contract languages called “smart contract engines,” that implement a virtual machine or interpreter that processes smart contracts.
United States tech giant Microsoft and the Ethereum Foundation are among the latest companies to join the ranks of the Hyperledger greenhouse hosted by the Linux Foundation. Many notable names in the tech and wider business fields today are developing enterprise-grade solutions based on the expanding set of tools built on Hyperledger.
These institutional blockchain projects cut across both financial and nonfinancial distributed ledger technology (DLT) utilization. Presently, there are pilot projects geared toward identification systems, supply chain management (SCM) and provenance, to mention a few.
On the whole, members of Hyperledger appear to be at the forefront of a renaissance in open-source project development, facilitating a more decentralized approach to project building. Such a trend evinces a return to a more decentralized internet with blockchain technology living up to the hype of being a disruptor of the global business process.
There are, however, some drawbacks to the emerging open-source project building trend, especially for startups that have yet to earn significant pedigree within the industry. Also, while DLT constitutes a technological breakthrough, kinks such as scaling need to be worked out before DLT-based systems can realistically upstage their mainstream centralized counterparts.
New members join Hyperledger
Microsoft, Salesforce and the Ethereum Foundation are among eight new members of Hyperledger, as announced on June 18. These companies already have a history of blockchain adoption, with several DLT-based projects across diverse business processes.
There are now more than 270 members of Hyperledger developing their own enterprise-grade blockchain solutions. Commenting on the collaboration with Hyperledger, Marley Gray, Microsoft’s principal blockchain engineering architect, declared:
“Our journey in the blockchain ecosystem has brought us a long way, and now is the time for us to join the Hyperledger community. We are proud of our contributions to such a diverse blockchain ecosystem, from our Azure service offerings and developer toolkits to our leadership in driving open specifications.”
Microsoft is by no means a new entrant to the blockchain arena, with the company already developing an ecosystem for blockchain as a service (BaaS) on the Azure cloud computing service.
In the BaaS arena, Azure competes with other offerings by the likes of Oracle and AWS. These platforms allow businesses to create bespoke DLT-frameworks to fit their operating purposes without having to navigate the skill, knowledge and cost barriers associated with building decentralized apps (DApps) from scratch.
Teams working on the Azure BaaS infrastructure get access to preconfigured modular networks that simplify the process from conception to deployment of their DLT-based solutions. By joining Hyperledger, Microsoft Azure now offers three different enterprise blockchain development environments, with the other two being Corda and Ethereum.
The Ethereum Foundation joins the Ethereum Enterprise Alliance (EEA) as a partner of Hyperledger. For Hyperledger CEO Brian Behlendorf, the decision of the Ethereum Foundation to join the expanding Hyperledger enterprise blockchain greenhouse will be a positive one for blockchain developers in the industry.
Data from StateOfTheDApps — a platform that tracks decentralized apps — shows that Ethereum hosts the highest number of DApps. Of the total 2,667 DApps tracked by the platform, 2,505 run on the Ethereum blockchain.
Apart from the newly announced members, others include notable tech giants like IBM and Oracle. IBM, Walmart and Alibaba are among the companies with a significantly high number of blockchain-based patents, which is indicative of their activity in research and development (R&D) efforts in DLT-related enterprises.
Hyperledger projects supporting enterprise blockchain development
Hyperledger, for its part, is a collaboration between enterprises and the open-source community facilitated by the Linux Foundation. The Hyperledger greenhouse acts as a bridge that connects developers, nonprofit organizations, academia and all other stakeholders interested in developing and implementing enterprise-grade blockchain technology solutions.
Cointelegraph spoke with Marta Piekarska, director of the Hyperledger ecosystem at the Linux Foundation, about how the partnership works. According to Piekarska, Hyperledger doesn’t develop code or provide consulting services. Explaining further, Piekarska said:
“We support them in terms of PR and marketing for their projects. Not all of the developers creating solutions using Hyperledger tools are members of Hyperledger. You don’t have to be a Hyperledger member to use our technology, participate in our special interest groups, or to download and use the code. There is no technological barrier to using Hyperledger frameworks and tools.”
There are numerous projects around the world based on specific Hyperledger frameworks, such as Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Iroha, to mention a few. Back in May 2019, Cointelegraph reported on the partnership between Iran’s central bank and Tehran-based blockchain firm Areatak to create a DLT platform for the country’s banking and finance markets using Hyperledger Fabric. According to the report, the Borna blockchain platform, when fully realized, should help revamp Iran’s outdated banking sector.
Matt Milligan of Milligan Partners — a blockchain-based startup focusing on toll interoperability and one of the newest members of Hyperledger — highlighted the benefits of joining a vast collaborative effort like Hyperledger. Milligan, the managing partner at the company, said:
“Joining Hyperledger is tremendously valuable to us as we develop blockchain solutions for Mobility as a Service. By working in this diverse open source community, we can be more creative and more innovative than we could ever be on our own.”
The fact that Hyperledger is open-source, means developers can learn from one another, trading ideas in an environment increasingly being populated by teams working on cutting-edge DLT protocols. This collaboration serves to achieve Hyperledger’s aim of fostering cross-industry blockchain development.
By so doing, stakeholders at Hyperledger are hoping that blockchain technology can move away from the realm of being a marketing buzzword to more tangible utility cases. In an interview during the Brainstorm 2019 conference organized by Fortune, Ripple CEO Brad Garlinghouse drew attention to the existence of too many economically inviable projects with the term “blockchain” slapped on them. According to Garlinghouse, “There is a lot of noise in the blockchain industry.”
Focus on nonfinancial DLT utilization
Apart from financial products, many of the blockchain protocols being built using Hyperledger tools involve nonfinancial use cases. This trend reinforces the narrative that DLT is a disruptive technology capable of affecting several facets of the global business process.
From a nonfinancial perspective, blockchain technology seems to be getting a great deal of adoption in protocols that require trust networks and provenance. Together, these two broad application cases cover much of the mainstream business arena — from SCM to health care and identity management.
Cointelegraph asked Piekarska about the major nonfinancial enterprise blockchain solutions being developed using the different Hyperledger framework tools, to which the director responded:
“There are quite a few markets that we are seeing as very big and potential markets. We are currently seeing a lot of interest in blockchain technology from stakeholders in supply chain management. We have the food trust project for IBM and Maersk. We have Everledger which is a blockchain project based on Hyperledger Fabric to track the provenance of diamonds and now also wine. There are at least 200 live networks based on Hyperledger Fabric alone. Digital identity is another space where we see a lot of interest. This is mostly as a result of Hyperledger Indy which is our framework for building digital identity solutions using zero-knowledge proofs. One of the main contributors here is Sovereign Foundation. They have the largest running network that is based on Hyperledger Indy.”
Right here for the taking
The combination of immutable data record-keeping and the ability to create trustless networks that do not require expensive third-party authenticators continues to be a pivotal aspect of the blockchain appeal. However, these projects still need to scale for them to be able to provide robust functionality on enterprise-level protocols.
Blockchain technology also seems to be having a material impact on open-source project development for both notable tech firms and smaller startups. According to Piekarska, there has been a noticeable increase in the number of projects listed on GitHub since the emergence of blockchain technology.
It isn’t inconceivable to imagine that DLT is creating easier avenues for open-source collaboration among development teams across the globe. Piekarska said:
“I think the coming of blockchain has caused a renaissance in open source project development especially for enterprise-grade software. It is changing the way enterprises see open-source project development which is reflected in the influx of notable tech giants like IBM and Microsoft into the Hyperledger environment. All projects in Hyperledger are under Apache license. It also lowers the barriers for small companies that can now take the code and build useful protocols.”
Hyperledger, from the Linux Foundation, is gathering more steam after welcoming two of the world’s largest top-10 enterprise software companies by revenue to the blockchain consortium.
This week it was announced that eight new large enterprises would be cementing their blockchain journey by joining Hyperledger. Other than Microsoft and Salesforce, both already heavily invested in blockchain, the intake included a U.S.-based supply chain consulting firm, a Russian metal company, and a Polish tech company, among others.
It is an important announcement as it demonstrates the growing snowball effect from enterprises and their interest in blockchain. Hyperledger is an open source collaborative project created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. It is boosting not only its members but improving the technology too.
More than a passing interest
Microsoft is no stranger to the blockchain space, and have been pushing the boundaries with their offerings, such as the Coco framework, which is an open-source system that enables high-scale, confidential blockchain networks that meet all essential enterprise requirements.
Moreover, on Azure, a cloud computing service from Microsoft, the software giant offers a blockchain workbench to help create and deploy blockchain applications for businesses.
Hyperledger is not even the first consortium they have joined. The company is looking into developing a decentralized identity system on the blockchain and is involved with the standard-setting organization the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) as well as the Decentralized Identity Foundation (DIF)
However, by joining they Hyperledger consortium, Microsoft is taking more significant steps into an ecosystem that is starting to go beyond just face-value experimenting.
“Our relations with Microsoft and Salesforce go back a year, so it’s a nice culmination of it,” Hyperledger executive director Brian Behlendorf told CoinDesk. “Now it’s not an academic interest from their side anymore, it’s something they want to take part in.”
“Our journey in the blockchain ecosystem has brought us a long way, and now is the time for us to join the Hyperledger community,” Marley Gray, principal architect for blockchain engineering at Microsoft, added in a press release.
Next step for Salesforce
Salesforce is also a big name in software, focusing in on cloud computing service as a software (SaaS) and specializing in customer relationship management (CRM). It is also another major enterprise that has not missed the blockchain boat either.
Salesforce’s entry into the blockchain market recently came when they announced their Salesforce Blockchain, interestingly built on the Hyperledger Sawtooth platform. Their offering boasts three clients that are testing the product. They include data research company IQVIA, the rating agency S&P Global, as well as Arizona State University.
Salesforce is also already taking part in blockchain-advancing projects. They announced in April that they had joined the Blockchain Research Institute (BRI), the global blockchain think tank with participants like Microsoft, IBM, the Bank of Canada, PepsiCo, Raiffeisen Bank, Polymath, and others.
Importance of Hyperledger
In being a part of this consortium, the enterprises are then also in the driving seat of the usage of the technology, profiting from its development and deployment, all the while shaping its direction.
Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance blockchain, has announced a diverse line-up of eight new members, including the Ethereum Foundation, Microsoft, Nornickel and Salesforce. Hyperledger also added a new identity infrastructure project that spotlights interoperability, cross project development and broad community involvement.
“Our journey in the blockchain ecosystem has brought us a long way, and now is the time for us to join the Hyperledger community,” said Marley Gray, Principal Architect, Blockchain Engineering at Microsoft. “We are proud of our contributions to such a diverse blockchain ecosystem, from our Azure service offerings and developer toolkits to our leadership in driving open specifications. We look forward to contributing to the community’s projects as well as initiating new ones based on emerging standards.”
The 8 new members
The eight new members are:
CAICT (China Academy of Information and Communications Technology)
The striking new support comes with the addition of Microsoft and SalesForce. With both companies already having considerable blockchain expertise and initiatives, welcoming them to the Hyperledger community is a boost for the Linux Foundation’s promotion of blockchain.
Hyperledger projects and special interest groups
Hyperledger is a multi-venture, multi-stakeholder effort hosted at the Linux Foundation. It includes various enterprise blockchain and distributed ledger technologies.
Hyperledger offers organisations (private and public) the opportunity to create industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware blockchain systems which support their individual business transactions. The objective is to enable enterprise-grade, open source distributed ledger frameworks and code bases.
With the recent launch of Hyperledger Aries, there are now a total 13 projects in the Hyperledger greenhouse. These include :
“Our new members illustrate the breadth of organizations that see the value of contributing to the Hyperledger community,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger. “The mix of blue chip technology companies, international organizations, logistics and manufacturing players and academia that have joined us from point around the world show the widespread interest and investment in open source enterprise blockchain technologies. This broad-based involvement is what drives our expanding portfolio of open source projects, which are fully conceived, developed and advanced by the ever-growing Hyperledger community.”
Enterprise Times: what does this mean
With the addition of these eight new members, Hyperledger now has some 200 members. Beside the new eight, well recognised names include Airbus, Aetna, Amex, Cisco, Daimler, Deutsche Bank, Intel, IBM, JP Morgan, NEC, Oracle, SAP and others. Part of the attraction is that Hyperledger supports an open community which takes contributions and participation from its diverse member base.
Though the Hyperledger member list was already impressive, the addition of Microsoft and Salesforce adds two notable absentees. However, another major investor in blockchain, Facebook which announced its Libra cryptocurrency, is not a Hyperledger member – preferring to develop its own blockchain technology. Might it one day feel obliged to participate? Hyperledger has momentum.
Open source blockchain network, Hyperledger announced on Tuesday that eight new members had joined the platform, including Microsoft, Nornickel, Ethereum Foundation, and SalesForce. It also introduced a new identity project which would focus on interoperability, broad community involvement, and cross-project development. This project is dubbed as Hyperledger Aries.
Commenting on the new entries, Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger said,
Our new members illustrate the breadth of organizations that see the value of contributing to the Hyperledger community. The mix of blue-chip technology companies, international organizations, logistics, and manufacturing players and academia that have joined us from the point around the world show the widespread interest and investment in open source enterprise blockchain technologies.
Behlendorf further added that such involvements drive the expanding portfolios of the company. These portfolios are entirely conceived and developed by the growing Hyperledger community, he said. The newly joined members include Gloscad, Microsoft, Milligan Partners, Nornickel, SalesForce, and Ethereum Foundation.
Hyperledger is a multi-venture blockchain network governed by the Linux Foundation. It offers various enterprise solutions based on blockchain tech and DLT. Hyperledger Aries is a distributed network of tools which facilitates
the exchange of Blockchain-based data, supports peer-to-peer messaging in various scenarios, and facilitates interoperable interaction between different blockchains and other distributed ledger technologies (DLTs).
Gloscad CEO and co-founder, Criss Boukoulou said,
Hyperledger offers an opportunity to reinvent the agricultural model by building trust on the human level. As a general member, we look forward to contributing to this new ecosystem.
The Ethereum Foundation is proud to lend our support to the efforts of both the @EntEthAlliance and @Hyperledger through our membership today. Together, we’ll continue to drive forward #Ethereum‘s progress and adoption.
Gloscad, Microsoft, Milligan Partners, Nornickel and Salesforce have joined as general members and China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT), Ethereum Foundation and GS1 US are now associate members.
Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director of Hyperledger commented:
“The mix of blue chip technology companies, international organizations, logistics and manufacturing players and academia that have joined us from point around the world show the widespread interest and investment in open source enterprise blockchain technologies. This broad-based involvement is what drives our expanding portfolio of open source projects, which are fully conceived, developed and advanced by the ever-growing Hyperledger community.”
Hyperledger Aries is the second project to spin off from Hyperledger Indy after Ursa. Ursa provides a library of advanced cryptographic operations consolidated from other Hyperledger projects and Aries continues the work of Indy to provide a protocol for decentralized identity.
According to its announcement, the intention of Aries is to:
“Provide code for peer-to-peer interaction, secrets management, verifiable information exchange, and secure messaging for different decentralized systems.
Foster practical interoperability in support of ongoing standards work and extend the applicability of technologies developed within Indy beyond its current community components from the Hyperledger stack into a single, effective business solution.”
In reference to the diagram below, Drummond Reed, Chief Trust Officer at Evernym explains how Aries differs from Indy:
“When it first began, the Hyperledger Indy project included code for all three of the lower layers…This was very powerful, but also somewhat overwhelming for new developers. And it gave the impression that layers 2 and 3 were tied to the Hyperledger Indy permissioned blockchain code at layer 1.
Separating out layer 2 and 3 code into a new independent project brings clarity to the fact that the goal of this four-layer stack is universal interoperability among all SSI ledgers, agents, wallets, verifiable credentials, and governance frameworks.”
Hyperledger is both a collaborative effort to develop cross-industry, open source software and a collection of frameworks and tools for developing blockchain applications for the enterprise. Hosted by the Linux Foundation, the venture currently consists of 13 projects, including the recently-announced Hyperledger Aries.
Pre-approved non-profits, open source projects, and government entities can join Hyperledger as associate members free of charge.
Hyperledger’s annual member summit takes place in Tokyo July 30–-31.
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Seth is a Seattle-based writer who helps businesses using blockchain tell the stories of their success. His work has been published in CryptoSlate, Hacker Noon, and Coin Review and clients have included Evernym and Aave. Seth also maintains a calendar of Seattle-area blockchain events at www.pnwblockchain.com.
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An open-source blockchain venture run by the Linux Foundation has recruited eight new members, including Microsoft and Salesforce, in order to expand its reach in the tech and open source community.
Beyond welcoming its new members, the Hyperledger initiative will also open up a focus on interoperability, cross-project development and broad community involvement. This is in addition to kickstarting a mentorship scheme during summer this year.
The industry heavyweights will contribute to the ongoing blockchain research efforts, now numbering 13 projects, and use the Hyperledger blockchain to develop apps in the future.
“Our new members illustrate the breadth of organizations that see the value of contributing to the Hyperledger community,” said Hyperledger’s executive director Brian Behlendorf.
“The mix of blue chip technology companies, international organizations, logistics and manufacturing players and academia that have joined us from point around the world show the widespread interest and investment in open source enterprise blockchain technologies.
“This broad-based involvement is what drives our expanding portfolio of open source projects, which are fully conceived, developed and advanced by the ever-growing Hyperledger community.”
Of the eight new members, five are deemed large enterprises, and will, therefore, pay membership fees that contribute towards wider Hyperledger blockchain research. These recruits include Polish consultancy firm Gloscad, transportation company Milligan Partners, Russian mining firm Nornickel, as well as tech giants Microsoft and Salesforce.
The three remaining organisations will be deemed ‘associate members’ and are not required to pay fees due to their status as non-profits, open source projects or government-affiliated organisations. They include the China Academy of Information and Communications Technology (CAICT), the Ethereum Foundation and GS1 US.
“We are proud of our contributions to such a diverse blockchain ecosystem, from our Azure service offerings and developer toolkits to our leadership in driving open specifications,” said Microsoft’s principal architect of blockchain engineering Marley Gra.
“We look forward to contributing to the community’s projects as well as initiating new ones based on emerging standards.”
Salesforce’s senior vice president for emerging technology Adam Caplan, meanwhile, said blockchain is fast-becoming a foundational technology for organisations.