DataArt and IntellectEU Join to Bring DAML Protocol and Smart Contracts to R3’s Corda

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    Open-source blockchain protocol DAML smart contracts are now available on R3’s Corda after system integrators DataArt and IntellectEU teamed up to deliver native integrations that allow developers to run DAML applications on Corda Open Source and Corda Enterprise.

    DAML on Corda joins the power and simplicity of DAML for smart contracts and multi-party workflows with the flexibility and broad adoption of the built-for-business and popular Hyperledger Corda DLT platform.

    Distributed ledger technology platforms like Corda offer a powerful way to deploy distributed, multi-party applications across all kinds of business domains but the types of unique applications that run on these platforms present some unique challenges for developers.

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    DAML is a language that operates at a higher level of abstraction with built-in concepts of parties, rights, and obligations. DAML programmers write statements concerned only with the distributed workflow, leaving the execution details to the DAML interpreter, and the verified distribution of correct state changes to the underlying DLT. Applications consequently can be written much faster, with fewer errors, than using general-purpose languages. Using DAML hides the complexities of programming for distributed systems. This ensures that DLT projects become more feasible, more likely to succeed, cheaper to implement, more reliable, and more extensible.

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IntellectEU Unlocks the Power of DAML on Corda

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NEW YORK (PRWEB)July 27, 2020

IntellectEU today announced the commercial availability of DAML on Corda, together with full customer support and services for running DAML applications on Corda Open Source and R3’s Corda Enterprise.

Corda is an open source blockchain platform designed for businesses. DAML is a state-of-the-art framework for building connected applications that span data silos and trust boundaries, changing how businesses collaborate across industries. With this partnership, IntellectEU becomes the first systems integrator to support this multi-platform language on Corda. At present, developers can only use Kotlin, a general purpose programming language, to write and run applications on this platform.

“DAML is the easiest and most robust way to develop distributed applications for businesses that we have seen,” said Thomas Bohner, Vice President, IntellectEU. “This new offering brings the power, flexibility, and time to market advantages of DAML to the widely-adopted Corda platform, allowing our clients to deploy fully-supported solutions to production on both Corda Enterprise and Corda Open Source. Clients can move their DAML applications between platforms without recoding, eliminating vendor lock-in and de-risking complex programs.”

Digital Asset partners with technology infrastructure providers to integrate DAML smart contracts with their blockchain, database and cloud technologies. Digital Asset’s partners, including IntellectEU, provide commercial integration with modern infrastructures to enable ambitious teams to build fundamentally new products. In addition to Corda, DAML is integrated with VMware Blockchain, Hyperledger Fabric, also commercially supported by IntellectEU, Hyperledger Sawtooth, PostgreSQL, and Amazon’s QLDB and its cloud-native Aurora database.

“We have enjoyed a long relationship with IntellectEU and are impressed with their commitment to and knowledge of DAML,” said Kelly Mathieson, Chief Client Experience Officer at Digital Asset. “Currently, every DLT platform has a smart contract language. DAML ensures developers only focus on business logic without worrying about the underlying ledger’s technology. It also allows enterprises to defer their ledger choice until the application has met the necessary business requirements, creating a better fit of the technology to the use case. We look forward to working with IntellectEU as we grow the DAML community on Corda.”

DAML on Corda is available today for development and testing, production use in Q3, and enterprise features for mission critical deployments expected by the end of 2020.

About IntellectEU

IntellectEU is an international technology company focused on digital finance and emerging technologies. Since 2006, IntellectEU has been focused on financial messaging and integration, being a SWIFT service partner. Building on their experience in financial services and technology, IntellectEU launched a DLT and blockchain practice in 2014. IntellectEU became a founding member of the Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger in 2016 and today, the company works with all leading blockchain providers (R3 Corda, DAML, Hyperledger, VMWare, IBM) and serves customers in the banking, insurance, capital markets, and telecommunication industries. Visit https://intellecteu.com/ for more information.

Media contact:

info@intellecteu.com

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Spain opens the bidding of masks against coronavirus in blockchain of Ethereum

The government of the autonomous community of Aragon, in Spain, opened a public tender on the blockchain of Ethereum for the acquisition of 35,000 masks reusable. The material will be used by the staff of the public administration for protection against the coronavirus and the disease COVID-19.

The announcement was made public on the 22nd of July and will culminate the six of August. Later you will advance in the selection process and announcement of the company favored, you will need to start the execution of the contract on the 20th of August. The base budget of the tender is about 120 thousand euros, according to the documents prepared by the authorities.

The presentation of bids will be done electronically using a contract smart on the blockchain of Ethereum. The government of Aragon has also made bids using Fabric Hyperledger for the handling and management of data.

On the website of calls are observed, the emblem of both platforms in all the bidding. The consultant on projects blockchain, Paul Lopez, said in his account on LinkedIn, that the proposal was prepared by the teams of the Group Oesía and Open the Canary islands.

“And that time came in which we see a use case of smart contracts in the blockchain as something that is real, simple and transparent. In my opinion all public fund should be managed this way. Congratulations to the Government of Aragon to decide to bet where others see problems and to Group team Oesía and Open Canary for your development”, published by López in the social network.

The companies to which Lopez won in January 2018 the contract award for the development of this kind of platforms of records distributed. That is to say, progress on the system with a blockchain already have at least two and a half years.

In this period the government of Aragon has consolidated its system that already has 27 bids in total. The first began to run in August 2019 and have been validated by the national platform of contracts of the public sector in the whole of Spain.

Competitive bidding, transparency and blockchain

The government of Aragon is one of the dependencies Spanish public that has used the call technology of accounting distributed (DLT) to manage public tenders. Breaking News reported in January of last year that the government would adopt Fabric of Hyperledger, but provided for a subsequent registration of the most important data of the tender in a blockchain public as Ethereum.

The government’s intention would be to offer higher levels of transparency with the use of the network of Ethereum, since that Fabric is a network permisionada in which participants must join through an online service’s membership.

The stakes for the DLT brought good results to the government of Aragon. In march of this year it was reported that it was awarded for promoting the transparency with the records distributed, a original technology of Bitcoin as the digital system. The award was presented during the National Congress of Innovation and Public Services.

Spain is one of the countries most affected by the pandemic coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2. Now been reported more than 272 thousand people were infected and more than 28 thousand deaths. Health authorities have reported that the use of masks is one of the main methods to prevent new infections, as well as the quarantine and the distancing in the streets.

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Bitcoin loyalist, Tuur Demeester, backs Ethereum thanks to DeFi

Long time supporter of Bitcoin and critic of Ethereum now says he is long on the smart contract platform

After years of criticising Ethereum, Tuur Demeester, a long term backer of Bitcoin, announced via Twitter that he will be taking the long position with Ethereum, though not without doubts about its fundamentals.

I agree with @PeterLBrandt, ETH/BTC technicals are looking bullish so I’m long. (I still think ETH has extremely problematic fundamentals.) pic.twitter.com/yoKhcGeL9f

— Tuur Demeester (@TuurDemeester) July 8, 2020

In a video announcement last month, Demeester expressed how he will be scaling back his public relationship with Bitcoin due to its recent politicisation, as well as his desire to focus more on humanitarian matters.

“One of the issues I’ve felt with self-labelled Libertarians and anarchists is that there’s often a level of compassion lacking, and so, rather than try and change their minds, I’m trying to see if there are other ways to talk about this stuff,” Demeester explained.

This shift to Ethereum comes at a time when the DeFi market is gaining popularity and numerous projects that use its blockchain are being given lots of attention.

Why Ethereum now?

Ethereum facilitates smart contract technology and the adoption of blockchain into many industries with its Hyperledger platform.

Industries such as sports, media, entertainment and logistics are starting to see the value of blockchain technology and have been replacing their traditional systems with Ethereum’s Hyperledger, making it an emerging force in the global industrial sector.

With the introduction of token Compound (COMP), an Ethereum based decentralised financial service, interest has increased with many of its current and potential users, propelling the Ethereum Defi market up to an explosive $2 billion in Q2 2020.

The surge of interest in DeFi appears to still be in the early stages, which means it may see more growth over the next few years — especially in a near-zero interest rate environment where investors are hungry for high-yield returns.

Great future prospects

Demeester recognises this boom and sees the potential of Ethereum, but remains doubtful of the platform still believing there are flaws that need to be remedied. During his video announcement, he reiterated his belief in Bitcoin.

Experts suggest that a swing of this scale may still only be temporary, as DeFi is still in its development stages. Overall, however, they remain positive for how the DeFi market is looking right now.

The future of Ethereum and many of its development tools is still uncertain. However, it is undeniable that it is the basis of the future development of various industries around the world.

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Visa Looks Out To Hire Ethereum and Ripple Developers to Build Global Payments Network



Visa, the world’s payment processing giant, is looking out to hire Ethereum and Ripple developers, to help build a global blockchain payments network.

This was noted in a recent job advertisement by the payment processing firm on its New Zealand official website. The advertisement indicated that the company is looking for a “strong developer experienced with Ethereum and blockchain architecture” to be part of its Global Commercial Payment team that works on distributed applications.

The advertisement reads further:

“Our ideal candidate has built and released distributed applications, has worked with the Ripple, R3, Ethereum and/or Bitcoin blockchain, and has experience with Solidity.”

Applicants that make the cut will be tasked with working on Visa’s “Non-Card based payment innovation and product”.

However, the fact that the advertisement is based on Ethereum and Ripple developers, including other developers mentioned does not imply that Visa blockchain payment product is about to use the blockchain technologies.

“Hyperledger chain-code development in Go-lang” is one of the 5 priority verticals stated in the advertisement. Additionally, one of the primary responsibilities in the job posting is to maintain the firm’s relationship with the Hyperledger initiative.

The Solidity programming language that was mentioned in the job posting is basically used to create smart contracts on the Ethereum blockchain. While R3 is an open-source blockchain project focused on creating permissioned blockchains for private enterprises, such as Hyperledger.

So, Visa’s interest in using permissioned blockchain technology could be termed as a lack of faith in public blockchains. Hyperledger also states the benefits of using private and permissioned blockchains in its documentation.

“Participants on a permissioned network are known to one another, and therefore have an intrinsic interest in participating in the consensus making process. This community of participants want to share data with a greater degree of security.”

Conclusively, Visa had attempted to leverage the capability of blockchain developers in the past. For instance, in March 2019, the payment processing firm posted an advertisement seeking a product manager that will oversee the development of fintechs that support digital currencies.


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Visa seeks Ethereum and Ripple devs for global blockchain payments

This article has been updated to reflect the fact that the job posting advertised dated from 2017

Visa is on the lookout for Ethereum developers to help build a global blockchain payments network.

According to a job advertisement by the payment processing giant on its New Zealand site, the company is looking for a “strong developer experienced with Ethereum and blockchain architecture” to join its Global Commercial Payments team, working on distributed applications.

“Our ideal candidate has built and released distributed applications, has worked with the Ripple, R3, Ethereum and/or Bitcoin blockchain, and has experience with Solidity,” states the ad.

Is Visa using Ethereum?

Successful applicants will be tasked with working on Visa’s generically titled, “Non-Card based payment innovation and product.”

Despite the advertisement’s apparent focus on developers with experience of Ethereum, Visa’s blockchain payment product may not be using Ethereum technology. Nor will it necessarily use Ripple or Bitcoin—also named in the ad.

One of Visa’s five stated “priority verticals” for the Global Commercial Payments team is listed as “Hyperledger chain-code development in Go-lang.” Also, one of the primary responsibilities listed in the job posting is to “Maintain firm’s relationship with the Hyperledger initiative.”

Visa’s five priority verticals (Image: Visa.co.nz)

What is Hyperledger?

Hyperledger is an open-source umbrella project of multiple blockchain technologies and tools created by the Linux Foundation in 2016. Hyperledger is primarily focused on building permissioned “enterprise-grade” blockchain technologies for use by private businesses and corporations. The initiative received the financial backing of IBM and Intel soon after its inception.

The Solidity programming language—also named in the ad—is primarily used to create smart contracts on Ethereum. R3, meanwhile, is an open-source blockchain project aimed at creating permissioned blockchains for private enterprises, similar to Hyperledger.

Visa’s apparent focus on leveraging permissioned blockchain technology could be interpreted as a lack of faith in public blockchains. Hyperledger’s documentation describes the benefits of using private, permissioned blockchains in the business sector. It states:

“Participants on a permissioned network are known to one another, and therefore have an intrinsic interest in participating in the consensus making process. This community of participants want to share data with a greater degree of security.”

This isn’t the first time Visa has tapped the blockchain developer pool. In 2019 the company posted an ad seeking a product manager to oversee the development of “fintechs that support digital currencies.”

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IntellectEU launches Catalyst Blockchain Platform for easy-to-manage ledger technology

IntellectEU Inc., an international technology company focused on digital finance and distributed ledger blockchain technologies, today announced the launch of its Catalyst Blockchain Platform to enable the creation, management and upkeep of blockchain networks and smart contracts.

The technology behind the Catalyst Blockchain Platform will save organizations time and money, the company said, by providing them the ability to create 10 organization networks in under 10 minutes, across any current infrastructure.

The platform also abstracts away much of the management and upkeep for the blockchain networks by automating as much as possible, but still provides powerful enough tools that users and developers can dive into the network and configure it using Kubernetes, IntellectEU added.

“Blockchain networks are difficult to deploy, monitor and maintain, while blockchain developers with the required deep domain expertise are expensive and difficult to find,” said Thomas Bogner, IntellectEU’s vice president of blockchain solutions “[We created] a user-friendly platform with an automated setup that makes it simple, fast and inexpensive for enterprises to harness the benefits of blockchain technology.”

Blockchain technology can provide substantial benefits with decentralization, immutability, automation, efficiency and security. But the technology has yet to gain widespread adoption because of difficulties and costs associated with managing enterprise-grade blockchain networks.

IntellectEU hopes the tools built into the Catalyst Blockchain Platform will help eliminate many of these barriers and allows companies to focus on business opportunities.

To make the platform as adaptable as possible, Catalyst works with numerous different protocols and smart contract languages including Hyperledger Fabric, R3 Corda and DAML. With the initial release, Hyperledger Fabric will be the first supported protocol. That will include a decentralized ordering service with the Raft protocol that will allow each organization to participate in ordering service, monitoring and voting systems.

The IntellectEU team has also integrated DAML, a digital asset modeling language used for blockchain smart contracts, which will help unlock the value of using ledger-agnostic language capable of creating and representing different types of tokens, coins or other cryptographic assets.

The Catalyst Blockchain Platform is built to run on any cloud or on-premises infrastructure using Kubernetes to launch, monitor and keep nodes operating.

The platform includes fully decentralized capabilities – allowing each participant to host their own version of the ledger and the full logic in a node – and provides the ability to manage channels through a voting system. With Hyperledger Fabric users can customize node properties, monitor the health of the network through an integrated dashboard, access secure storage for digital identity management and develop smart contracts using DAML.

“IntellectEU has played an important role in the evolution and advancement of distributed systems and blockchain technologies as a trusted systems integrator and founding member of the Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger Project,” said Brian Behlendorf, executive director at Hyperledger.

Image: IntellectEU

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Catalyst Blockchain Platform from IntellectEU Makes Blockchain Technology Easier to Use Than Ever

The first decentralized cloud-agnostic platform accelerates the creation, management, and upkeep of blockchain networks and smart contracts, saving time and money

NEW YORK, and ANTWERP, Belgium (PRWEB) June 23, 2020

IntellectEU, an international technology company focused on digital finance and emerging technologies, today announced the general availability of Catalyst Blockchain Platform, a platform solution that enables the creation, management and upkeep of blockchain networks and smart contracts on any cloud, on-premises or hybrid infrastructure. The platform saves organizations time and money by providing the ability to create a 10 organization network in under 10 minutes. Catalyst Blockchain Platform is already being used by several financial institutions and is expanding to other industries such as insurance, telecommunications, healthcare, and logistics.

Although blockchain technology can provide significant benefits such as decentralization, transparency, immutability, efficiency, and security, it has yet to achieve widespread adoption largely because of the difficulty, cost, and time associated with creating and managing enterprise-grade blockchain applications. Catalyst Blockchain Platform breaks down the aforementioned barriers to adoption and allows companies to focus on their business opportunities by eliminating the complexity of blockchain.

“Blockchain networks are difficult to deploy, monitor, and maintain, while blockchain developers with the required deep domain expertise are expensive and difficult to find,” said IntellectEU VP of Blockchain Solutions Thomas Bohner. “We channeled IntellectEU’s years of expertise, delivering more than 25 blockchain projects for highly-regulated industries around the globe, to create a user-friendly platform with an automated set-up that makes it simple, fast, and inexpensive for enterprises to harness the benefits of blockchain technology.”

IntellectEU’s Catalyst Blockchain Platform works with different protocols and smart contract languages (including Hyperledger Fabric, R3 Corda, and DAML) which can be installed on any cloud system. For the initial release, Hyperledger Fabric is the first supported protocol, enhancing its modular architecture, scalability, and privacy features, and facilitating peer and chaincode management. Additionally, it includes a decentralized ordering service with Raft protocol and allows each organization to participate in ordering service, monitoring, and voting systems. The IntellectEU engineering team successfully integrated DAML into the platform to unlock the value of their ledger-agnostic smart contract language.

“IntellectEU has played an important role in the evolution and advancement of distributed systems and blockchain technologies as a trusted systems integrator and founding member of the Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger Project,” said Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director, Hyperledger. “With their proven domain expertise, I expect a lot of market attention around the Catalyst Blockchain Platform as enterprises look for a more accessible way to solve business problems using blockchain technology.”

Catalyst Blockchain Platform is built to run on any cloud or on-premises using Kubernetes to launch, monitor, and keep nodes up and running. Additionally, the platform provides the following unique benefits:

  • Full decentralization – each participant hosts nodes which are part of the whole consensus network
  • Ability to manage channels through the voting system
  • Customization of Hyperledger Fabric node properties
  • Integrated monitoring dashboard
  • Secure storage for managing digital identities
  • Flexible and highly-qualified support service
  • Integrated DAML smart contract language

IntellectEU’s Catalyst Blockchain Platform provides large enterprises with flexible terms, personalized support, and optional white-label solution, as well as competitive pricing and bespoke packages for smaller teams and developers. For more information on the Catalyst Blockchain Platform or to schedule a demo, visit http://catalyst.intellecteu.com/ or email a request to catalyst-product@intellecteu.com.

About IntellectEU

IntellectEU is an international technology company focused on digital finance and emerging technologies. Since 2006, IntellectEU has been focused on financial messaging and integration, being a SWIFT service partner. Building on their experience in financial services and technology, IntellectEU launched a DLT and blockchain practice in 2014. IntellectEU became a founding member of the Linux Foundation’s Hyperledger in 2016 and today, the company works with all leading blockchain providers (R3 Corda, DAML, Hyperledger, VMWare, IBM) and serves customers in the banking, insurance, capital markets, and telecommunication industries. Visit https://intellecteu.com/ for more information.

For the original version on PRWeb visit: https://www.prweb.com/releases/catalyst_blockchain_platform_from_intellecteu_makes_blockchain_technology_easier_to_use_than_ever/prweb17209297.htm

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Bitdeal Introduces Supply Chain Blockchain Development With Hyperledger

We, bitdeal – the torch bearer of enterprise blockchain solutions providers, started to dominate the blockchain b2b startups from the earlier stage of blockchain growth. We groomed up into a reputed blockchain development company, with 120+ expert blockchain developers, and the successful 5+ years of journey fintech industry. Our cheerful success of delivering the 100+ quality crypto and blockchain projects made us take new initiative to provide industry wide solutions through blockchain technology.

Since we have experts in hyperledger frameworks, we have taken the supply chain industry as our first preference which can be transformed into a decentralized ecosystem, with hyperledger blockchain technology. The Master level experience in resolving the complex issues in high tech blockchain application, gave us the courage to change the entire supply chain industry with our blockchain solutions.

With this PR, we are glad to explore our expertise in all hyperledger frameworks & tools, as below:

  1. Hyperledger Fabric
  2. Hyperledger Grid
  3. Hyperledger Sawtooth
  4. Hyperledger Indy
  5. Hyperledger Iroha
  6. Hyperledger Burrow
  7. Hyperledger Explorer
  8. Hyperledger Quilt
  9. Hyperledger Cello
  10. Hyperledger Caliper

Also, from now on our clients are free to acquire the below service for private blockchain development for supply chain on hyperledger.

  1. Technical Consulting
  2. Smart Contract Development
  3. Profiling & auditing
  4. Decentralized application development
  5. Support & Maintenance
  6. Migration & Consensus Development

Why Choose Us ?

In Track our Records Content

With 7+ years of solid experience in blockchain technology, we have fulfilled more than 150+ successful blockchain projects around the globe.

We are Creators, Not Just the Doers

We never commit ourselves just to complete the focused project on time. Instead we focus to bring innovation on each frame.

Cost Effective

Competitive price packages, and down to earth customization costs for any kind of blockchain

We guarantee our clients that we can take any initiatives to resolve any kind of riskful technology mess up in your dream blockchain project. Moreover we have already started to provide blockchain services and have created portfolios in supply chain , healthcare, agriculture, banking and more industries. We are ready to coordinate with you to bring innovations through blockchain.

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Building a decentralized marketplace using Hyperledger Fabric

In our previous post Can we put our trust in a decentralized marketplace?, we proposed the idea of a decentralized marketplace built using a private blockchain and smart contracts. We detailed the guarantees that it needs to provide to its members and detailed how to implement them using the functionalities provided by a private blockchain. The conclusion was that a private blockchain can provide the required guarantees but that implementing such a solution requires caution.

To further explore this topic, we decided to implement a prototype decentralized marketplace using Hyperledger Fabric. Overall, this project helped us realize that the successful implementation of our envisioned decentralized marketplace requires more than just smart contract development. In this blog post, we list key requirements and provide details regarding the reasoning behind them and how they affected our decentralized marketplace prototype.

At the lower level, the deployment and maintenance of the distributed ledger peers require the commitment of all the participants in terms of resources and manpower, but also competence development. Looking at the smart contracts, they require deep technical and business knowledge to be correctly implemented and administrated. Going further, the ledger participants need to agree on how to deal with the consequences of a smart contract failure. Additionally, the blockchain does not stand in a vacuum – it needs to be integrated with the infrastructure of each participant, generating more costs for them to bear.

At the time of this work, the latest Hyperledger Fabric release was 1.4. As a result, our implementation does not leverage the improvements that were brought in version 2. However, the points discussed here are, to the best of our knowledge, still valid.

Private blockchain platform

Based on the design that was detailed in the previous post, we had a pretty good idea of what we needed to implement using the blockchain. The first step to realize it was to choose which platform to use.

We identified three major blockchain platforms as having all the features we needed to implement our decentralized marketplace: JP Morgan Quorum, R3 Corda and Hyperledger Fabric. We chose Hyperledger Fabric due to its large and active community and because some project members already had some experience working with it.

After deciding on a ledger to use, the next step was to understand its architecture and how to apply it to our use case. This step was critical to make sure that we were getting the properties that we expected from the private ledger. Indeed, an incorrectly deployed private ledger brings no more guarantees than a centralized database.

Looking specifically at Hyperledger Fabric, the system is composed of two types of nodes: peers and orderers. The peers are responsible for hosting the ledger and smart contracts. While the orderers are responsible for ordering the transactions and doing some administrative bookkeeping.

As a user of Hyperledger Fabric, some of the guarantees are only achieved when hosting a peer. Taking smart contract execution as an example, hosting a peer is the only way to be sure that the execution of a smart contract is faithful to its definition. This means that, in most cases, all the organizations participating in the ledger will need to host at least one peer. In addition to increasing their cost, this requires every organization to have a decent competence level in Hyperledger Fabric.

For the orderers, the problem is different. Running an orderer provides its host with the possibility to read the content of all the transactions, as well as influence or even prevent their ordering. As a result, the organizations hosting the orderers must be chosen carefully so as not to weaken the system. Moreover, running an orderer is also another cost that some organizations must pay, for the blockchain to operate.

For our decentralized marketplace use case, because we assume that each organization does not trust any other to properly execute the smart contracts, it means that they all need to host at least one peer. In turn, this implies that they need to have the competences, resources and manpower to do so. These requirements put a high barrier to the entry in the marketplace, making it suitable only for larger organizations. In practice, this limits the scope of our decentralized marketplace to business to business interactions.

Figure 1: Example Hyperledger Fabric Network.

Figure 1: Example Hyperledger Fabric Network.


Smart contracts

Having understood how to deploy the ledger, the next step was to start implementing the business logic. This is the role of the smart contracts, or chaincodes as they are called in Hyperledger Fabric. They ensure that the state of the ledger is only mutated following pre-defined rules. How to specify and agree on these rules is out of the scope of the blockchain. It is codified in the agreement binding the participants. In Hyperledger Fabric, these restrictions regarding the allowed ledger mutations are enforced using the endorsement mechanism. This mechanism ensures that the smart contracts have been independently executed by multiple organizations, and that they agree on the outcome. To do so, the chaincodes are executed by peers from different organizations and the results of the independent executions (called the endorsements) are then collected and bundled before being recorded to the ledger. For the execution to be deemed valid, all the results must be identical, and the set of peers that have performed the execution must fulfill the endorsement policy.

The endorsement policy is defined by the blockchain administrators and dictates what endorsements are needed for a chaincode invocation to be valid. These requirements can target both the number of endorsements needed, as well as the organizations these endorsements must come from. This policy is key in guaranteeing that the chaincodes are executed properly. If the policy is too weak, it makes it possible for a subset of the participants to execute a modified version of the chaincode and still collect enough endorsements for the execution to be deemed valid. As a result, the endorsement policy needs to be strong enough to guarantee the proper execution of the chaincodes. However, it should also avoid involving too many organizations, as this would negatively impact the performance of the ledger. Balancing these constraints requires the administrators to have deep knowledge of both the platform and the business logic.

The previous sections assume the smart contract perfectly encode the business logic. However, it can happen that, due to a bug for instance, the smart contract behavior differs from the expected business logic. In such a case, it is possible that multiple invalid transactions are accepted, before the issue is identified and fixed. Moreover, even after the issue has been fixed, it might not be straightforward to identify all the transactions that have been impacted and all the members that have been wronged. In such a case, it is crucial for the blockchain participants to have a clear agreement regarding how to handle the situation.

If the code is considered the absolute law, the members that have been wronged are at fault for not auditing the code carefully enough and should not be compensated. On the opposite, if the smart contract developer is considered at fault for not following the specification, they should be liable for any damage due to their mistake. Without such an agreement between the participants, the different blockchain members could end up having different opinions regarding what is to be considered the proper “history”, defeating the purpose of the blockchain.

Figure 2: Sequence diagram of a chaincode execution

Figure 2: Sequence diagram of a chaincode execution


System integration

To summarize, based on the considerations discussed above, we designed an architecture allowing us to leverage the benefits from Hyperledger Fabric (similar to the one presented in figure 1) and implemented the smart contracts regulating the exchange in our marketplace (as presented in our previous blog post). The next step was then to deploy our solution in a production environment. In Hyperledger Fabric, it is straightforward to setup a development system; the project provides many examples of how to do so. A production system is however much more complex. It needs to span multiple organizations and integrate into their existing infrastructure. This requires each organization to perform some integration and administration work both internally and in collaboration with the other blockchain members.

Regarding such administrative tasks, one of the issues we faced with Hyperledger Fabric version 1.4 is that they were not fully covered by the existing tools. For some procedures, it is up to the participants to decide and agree on how they should be performed. For instance, the administration of the blockchain often requires sharing data between the different organizations (for instance cryptographic materials, chaincode packages, and so on). How to securely perform such data exchanges is not specified by Hyperledger Fabric and therefore needs to be devised by the participants. Moreover, if manually performing these administrative tasks is fine for smaller systems, it will become necessary to automate them when the number of participants grows.

As for the integration work, this project made us realize that it is not to be underestimated. For a system to be able to interface with the smart contract hosted on the ledger, it needs to interact with a peer. To that effect, Hyperledger Fabric already provides SDKs for the Node.js and Java languages, and they are further working on Python and Go versions. As a result, it is straightforward to perform this integration when using a language supported by the SDKs. However, when dealing with unsupported languages, the implementation can become much more complicated. The solution often relies on an intermediate component, for instance a shared library or a standalone proxy, to perform the interaction with the peer. That intermediate component is typically written using one of the available SDKs and exposes an interface that is easier for the target system to interact with. However, beyond just adding complexity to the implementation, such a component might also introduce vulnerabilities. Indeed, being on the path between the client and the ledger, it is able to alter the data read from the ledger, modify the client transactions or simply impact availability.

For our use case, the functionality that we felt lacked most in Hyperledger Fabric was a way for the end users to interact with the smart contracts from a web browser, similar to what Metamask provides for Ethereum. Without such a component, it is not possible to provide an end-to-end experience for the end user when solely using a web application. The end user has no choice but to trust the server side to handle the blockchain transactions on their behalf. In practice, this requires them to be in the same security domain, forcing each organization to host their own instance of any web application.

Takeaway insights

Looking back, this project made us realize that even though the heart of the marketplace functionality is provided by the smart contracts, a lot of work is required to build the environment needed to execute them.

All the participants need to be actively involved to deploy and maintain the distributed ledger that’s needed by the smart contracts, and to integrate them with the rest of their infrastructure.

As a result, at least for now, properly designing and implementing a solution using Hyperledger Fabric is possible, but it requires a lot of competences and resources from all the participants. However, we believe that, as the ecosystem matures, the Hyperledger projects will continue to improve and be supported by an increasing number of tools. This will help make Hyperledger Fabric easier to work with for the developers, administrators and end users.

Learn more

Read the first blog post of this series: Can we put our trust in a decentralized marketplace?

Find out more about our research into the future of cloud and computing.

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