Splunk : Hyperledger Fabric Security Monitoring with Splunk | MarketScreener

In this post, we demonstrate how to set up effective security monitoring of your Hyperledger Fabric infrastructure. We identify some common threats, recognize key data sources to monitor, and walk through using Splunk to ingest and visualize your data. This post follows Introducing Splunk App for Hyperledger Fabric and highlights the use of the app for security monitoring of blockchain infrastructure. We will address smart contract/chaincode security & monitoring in a follow-up post.

Threats

Blockchain infrastructure incorporates a diverse set of technologies, across a distributed network, which means it faces some unique challenges. Some of the most significant infrastructure threats include Denial of Service (DoS), Key Theft, Network Partitioning, Consensus Manipulation, and Blockchain Integrity Attacks. We show indicators and data sources required to detect DoS, Consensus Manipulation and Ledger Manipulation attacks and demonstrate results from an emulated DoS attack.

Key Data Sources

In addition to the data sources that are already important to monitor in any enterprise environment, blockchain systems produce huge amounts of additional data that should be monitored.

Generally this data is separated into on-chain and off-chain data. On-chain data consists of the ledger data, which is persistent and resistant to tampering from network-wide replication. Off-chain data is often ephemeral and may not be widely distributed. Examples of off-chain data include the state database, network traffic, as well as node metrics and logs. The table below shows how a combination of data from the ledger, logs, and metrics can be used to indicate different threats.

Threat

Indicators

Data Source

Denial of Service

Tx throughput & latency

Block latency

# Senders

# Open connections

Block headers,

Node metrics

Consensus Manipulation

Changes in chain config

Leadership Elections

Blocks

Node logs

Ledger Manipulation

Orphaned blocks

Block headers



Getting Started with Hyperledger Fabric Monitoring

We can easily analyze Hyperledger Fabric’s ledger, log, and metric data with the following tools. Splunk Connect for Hyperledger Fabric ingests ledger and metric data from a Hyperledger Fabric deployment. The Splunk Docker logging driver can be used to send container logs to Splunk. Finally, Splunk App for Hyperledger Fabric facilitates the analysis of this data in Splunk. For a walkthrough of the main features of Splunk App for Hyperledger Fabric read Introducing Splunk App for Hyperledger Fabric.

Once you have the app running, click on the Security Monitoring dashboard to be presented with a high level view of several threat indicators. Of note, indicators of DoS include trends in transaction latency & throughput, unique senders, as well as open gRPC connections. Orphaned blocks may indicate attacks on Blockchain Integrity. Finally, indicators of Consensus Manipulation include configuration updates and consensus leader changes.


A view of the Security Monitoring dashboard


Of course this dashboard is only a sample of what is possible. You can further expand on the searches in any of these dashboards yourself, using events captured from node logs or ledger data, along with Prometheus/StatsD Hyperledger Fabric metrics.

Example: Detecting DoS Attacks

Now, we’ll demonstrate how our monitored indicators respond to an emulated DoS attack. In this scenario, an authorized user has their keys compromised and begins spamming the network with transactions.

We will be paying particular attention to the transaction latency, throughput, and number of open connections. First, we’ll look at the normal case where a single client is sending 10 transactions per second.


Normal Case: Transaction and Connection Metrics


Next, we’ll have a single client open up persistent 1000 connections each performing 1 query per minute. Here, we see that the transaction latency starts to increase, transactions per second decreases, and the number of open connections increases. At this point, it may be difficult to determine if this is reflective of a high period of load, misconfiguration, or a denial of service attack.


Adversary Case: Transaction and Connection Metrics


We can investigate further in the Infrastructure Health and Monitoring Dashboard, where we see connection and I/O timeout errors.


Infrastructure Health and Monitoring: I/O Timeouts

Because we noticed a large number of open connections, we should query Splunk to see the distribution of gRPC message subjects and addresses. When we perform this search we see a large discrepancy in message count – indicating that “User1@buttercup.example.com,L=San Francisco,ST=California,C=US” is likely compromised or misconfigured and should be investigated further.

gRPC Message Counts

Conclusion

Comprehensive monitoring can help to secure your blockchain infrastructure by quickly identifying threats and facilitating investigations. Monitoring is only one part of a secure software development life cycle, and it does not replace the need for independent audits or penetration tests. We showed how you can use the Splunk App for Hyperledger Fabric to monitor the security of your Hyperledger Fabric deployments and facilitate incident investigation and remediation.

Stay tuned for a deep dive in contract/chaincode security & monitoring in a follow-up post. If you need assistance with Hyperledger analytics connect with us at blockchain@splunk.com.

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CBN Looks To Barbados To Design The ENaira, Why Not Nigeria? – Techpoint Africa

August 31, 2021

What services will Bitt Inc. be offering the CBN?

Bitt Inc. will provide the technical skills required for deploying, managing, and maintaining the infrastructure.

In a chat with Techpoint Africa, Founder, Chairman Blockchain User Group and Vice Chairman Blockchain Industry Coordinating Committee of Nigeria, Chimezie Chuta, explained the function as writing codes and creating a digital infrastructure for the eNaira.

A look at Bitt Inc.’s website reveals that it will mint, issue, and destroy central bank digital currencies, functions that the CBN says it will perform according to a supposedly released presentation.

However, Chuta says the CBN does not have the technical skills to perform the functions independently.

The company was also contracted by the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank (ECCB) in 2019 to issue a digital currency within the Eastern Caribbean Currency Union (ECCU).

Are there Nigerian companies that can perform these functions?

Yes, and Chuta points out that there are companies in the country that can provide the CBN with the technical expertise it requires to launch the eNaira. One of them is Bantu, an Africa-led company that develops Blockchain infrastructures.

So why didn’t the CBN choose from Nigeria?

In CBN’s defence, Chuta believes local technical partners might not be the best option given that the Blockchain network — Hyperledger Fabric — the CBN chose to run the eNaira is created by a consortium of “big entities including IBM and a couple of other big organisations that are not local.”

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Interestingly, he points out that the CBN did not leave Nigerian companies out.

“There is a team of Nigerians, an Africa-based company called Interstellar that has a functional Blockchain infrastructure deployed for the CBN on a testnet that is still running.”

Why did the CBN choose Hyperledger Fabric?

It’s not clear why Hyperledger Fabric was chosen as the Blockchain solution for the eNaira, but Chuta believes the apex bank has good reasons for making the decision.

Nevertheless, he has reservations about the solution, as it’s his opinion that Hyperledger Fabric is a closed Blockchain infrastructure, “which may not be easy for the kind of innovation that we have previously advised the CBN on.”

Chuta advised the CBN on creating a Blockchain solution that not only serves the eNaira but a variety of other things such as identity management and supply chain management, basically killing several birds with one stone.

“Bantu Blockchain is an Africa-led Blockchain team that could have built what CBN wants.”

With the availability of African and Nigerian companies competent enough to provide the services Bitt Inc is offering, does CBN truly have a genuine reason to look outward?

Keep your eyes peeled to this article as we’ll be sharing more updates from industry players and experts.

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Blockchain Platforms Software Market 2021 SWOT Analysis, by Key Players: IBM, Intel …

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Blockchain Platforms Software Market Leading Companies:

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Intel

Microsoft

Ethereum

Ripple

Quorum

Hyperledger

R3 Corda

EOS

OpenChain

Stellar

SAP

Amazon

Mastercard

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Blockchain Identity Software Market Giants To Grow At Much Faster Pace – The Manomet Current –

A new research study on Worldwide Blockchain Identity Software Market is added by HTF MI in its repository with an aim to offers a complete assesment about the factors influencing and overall market growth trend. The study covers latest development insights with disrupted trends and breakdown of Worldwide Blockchain Identity Software products and offering correlated with macro-economic headwinds and slowdown. Quantitative statistics with qualitative reasoning related to market size, share, growth influencing factors of Worldwide Blockchain Identity Software market are evaluated with Pre and Post 2020 by studying market dominant and emerging players ecosystem. Some of the players that are listed in the study are Kaleido, BlockCypher, Hyperledger, Blockstack PBC, Digital Bazaar, BitMark, 1Kosmos, Filament Networks, BlockScore, BlockVerify, BlocWatch, B2Lab, Cambridge Blockchain, Civic Technologies, C-LOG, Credify, DAL Global Services, Deqode, Dragonchain, Elliptic, Evernym, Factom, Guardtime, HearRo, HYPR, IBM, idRamp, MATTR, Spotify, Meeco.me, Meta Digital, Monetha, Neo Team, Netki, Jelurida Swiss SA, OARO, Onchain, SecureKey Technologies, Ping Identity, Spaceman ID, Terradoxa, Verifiable, Tokeny Solutions, Transmute, Trinsic, Trust Stamp & uPort.

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Chapter 8: Research Methodology

Chapter 9: Data Source

…….

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Japan’s JCB cards exploring blockchain interoperability – Ledger Insights

Enabling assets to be instantly exchanged for digital currency, Delivery versus Payment (DvP) and Payment versus Payment are areas to be explored.

Datachain specializes in blockchain interoperability. Its Hyperledger Labs project, YUI, supports interoperability between enterprise blockchains Hyperledger Fabric, Hyperledger Besu and Corda. It builds on the Cosmos Inter-Blockchain Communication Protocol (IBC), which relays messages between the different chains.

One of the main drivers behind blockchain for business is to break down data silos and share data between companies. But as more and more blockchain applications come online, each blockchain network is another silo, albeit a larger one. While it’s possible to integrate two blockchains using APIs, there’s a strong preference to avoid the need for trusted third parties, which JCB is exploring here.

JCB is very active in blockchain innovations. It partnered with LayerX and recently published a joint paper on confidential computing and trusted execution environments. This type of technical solution can allow companies to share transaction data to calculate credit scoring without the other company seeing the underlying data. These private calculations work in a BlackBox-like environment.

Earlier this year, JCB said it was working with KeyChain for machine-to-machine payments, which could be used for road tolls or 5G payments. One of its first blockchain initiatives in 2019 was with B2B payments firm PayStand.






















Source

Ledger Insights
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