The art and craft of blockchain networks

The differences between public non-permissioned blockchain networks and private permissioned blockchain networks have been well chronicled. In brief, a public permissionless blockchain has no access restrictions to view its data or participate. Usually, such networks offer economic incentives for those who secure them and utilise some type of lottery-based consensus algorithm. Some of the largest, most known public blockchains are Bitcoin and Ethereum.

A private permissioned blockchain network requires permission to read the information on the blockchain and limits the parties who can transact or participate. Some examples include R3’s Corda, as well as various Hyperledger frameworks, including Hyperledger Fabric and Hyperledger Sawtooth among others. There are few cases, if any, where a private permissionless network would make sense, but there are some examples of public permissioned networks appearing to facilitate better scaling of public networks.

Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin captured the difference between public and private networks nicely when he said, “Essentially, instead of having a fully public and uncontrolled network and state machine secured by cryptoeconomics (eg. proof of work, proof of stake), it is also possible to create a system where access permissions are more tightly controlled, with rights to modify or even read the blockchain state restricted to a few users, while still maintaining many kinds of partial guarantees of authenticity and decentralisation that blockchains provide.”

When MonetaGo was in the architectural planning stages of a blockchain network deployment in India that aimed to reduce instances of fraud around receivables financing, the team had to assess which type of blockchain framework fit that particular use case. Would a public or private blockchain network be more appropriate? Should the network be tokenised? Which specific blockchain technology is the best choice in this instance?

Private permissioned blockchain network

The particular blockchain network use case in India was not public service. Therefore, it was obvious that access would not be given to the public. The information being stored on this network is private to its participants and needed to be protected.

In the enterprise, and specifically in financial services, when there is a network that will potentially be open to multiple parties, there need to be assurances that all parties follow the same rules, regulations, and disclosures. Additionally, enterprises need assurances that specific information and data is not available to anyone not entitled to access it. If the network is open to every single person on Earth, there could be both abuses and misuses of the information. From a business standpoint, there is rarely a case to make transactional information public, and networks tend to serve a specific purpose, which is restricted to entities that meet specific requirements. For example, regarding participating on the Swift network for interbank payments, access is generally restricted to participants which are of a certain size, are licensed, are regulated, and fall under a certain classification because they have procedures in place and have a vested interest in operating a certain way on the network.

That’s not to say that they aren’t use cases where some aspects of a private network couldn’t be made public. For instance, identity services such as certificate authorities (whose purpose is to validate the link between an identity and cryptographic keys) make more sense as a public service than specific to a single blockchain network. Tying keys to known and verified public identities is a common requirement for private networks.

That being said, the exchange of transactional information itself between parties for enterprise will never be done in a public setting unless it is public information, even if it is encrypted or pseudonymous. There are a few cases where transactional information is mandated to be made public, such as property deeds, which is publicly searchable. However, with the use cases we are pursuing, it is almost always involving sensitive or regulated information and participants for which privacy is a fundamental requirement.

Non-tokenised blockchain network

While there are certainly legitimate use cases for tokens, MonetaGo never thought it appropriate to use the token model for the Fraud Mitigation Network in India. First, there was no requirement for a token to be used. Without tokenisation, the distributed ledger architecture itself added value by providing a secure and immutable service, not controlled by any single entity, where data is being stored and shared while guaranteed to maintain its integrity. Simply put, the use cases that MonetaGo is pursuing for financial institutions just do not have a need for tokens.

Any tokenised blockchain provides value transfer as a core service, and relies on distributed trust to verify that the transactions are valid. That means that the network as a whole, or potentially a subset of the network, needs to see the details of that transaction. That is a breach of privacy. There are a few solutions that have been floated, such as zero knowledge proofs and other proxies for homomorphic encryption, but the problem is that these mechanisms are built on unstable mathematical principles, and have a considerable cost in terms of computing power and latency. There is a reasonable probability that attacks will be found on these types of encryption. As a result, storing private data on an adversary’s computer who is not privy to the information is fundamentally the wrong design choice.

Why Hyperledger Fabric

Picking the right tool for the job is critical. Once decided that the Fraud Mitigation Network was to be built on a private permissioned non-tokenised blockchain network, the question became which blockchain framework best fits the needs in this particular use case? Ultimately, we felt Hyperledger Fabric was the right choice for four primary reasons listed below. It should be noted, however, that there are other use cases where Hyperledger Fabric might not be the best choice, and in fact, we are working on other use cases for which it is not currently appropriate.

First, the requirements were for a global broadcast private permissioned network. Second, the platform needed to be low cost. Third, the platform needed to be flexible in its design principles, and tokenless. Last but not least, it needed to be enterprise grade and industry tested. Hyperledger Fabric is open source, and the scale and openness of the large Hyperledger developer community has resulted in a better platform outcome that can be considered enterprise grade and able to withstand use in enterprise financial service use cases.

Longevity of a platform is critical for enterprise. As a startup, we could not afford the risk of investing resources in a platform which has a low probability of survival. As Hyperledger Fabric has the backing of major industry players and several banks, it has a very high probability of good longevity. We feel that proprietary blockchain technologies have a much lower probability of survival. As the technology evolves, a proprietary team may not be able to keep up with the pace of technological advancement that a huge open source community can manage, or they may fall short of their business objectives and become economically unviable. These risks led us to go open source, and ultimately Hyperledger Fabric.

The decision regarding which type of blockchain network to use for your network can be a complicated choice as many factors weigh into the decision. Public or private? Tokenised or not? Proprietary or open source? Does the use case even require the use of a distributed ledger in the first place? The ultimate choice needs to be primarily driven by the use case at hand. Consult with others who are further along in their use of blockchain technologies. Take the time at the outset to vet options thoroughly before getting too deep into the process.


BBVA Signs Agreement With Repsol to Develop Blockchain Financial Solutions


BBVA and Repsol have signed an agreement to work together on developing a blockchain financial solution that renews a 325-million-euro credit line. The revolving credit facility (RCF) is being used on the blockchain for the first time.

During the pilot, BBVA’s blockchain network was used to negotiate a long-term credit line, which reduced the tedious process that takes days for approval to just a few hours.

Syndicated Loans to Be Tested on Blockchain


BBVA CEO Carlos Torres spoke, recently, at a seminar organized in Santander about the ways in which digital transformation could improve people’s lives, emphasizing economic progress and social well-being. He revealed that digital sales by the company reached 40% of the total in May. He also announced that the group is looking forward to testing syndicated loan disbursement using blockchain technology.

After the test was successfully completed, BBVA’s Head of Strategy and Blockchain Alicia Pertusa lauded the alliance with Repsol. She said:

“This operation is the fruit of BBVA’s pursuit of integrating innovative and disruptive financial products for corporate clients and to offer them the best solutions that meet their needs.”

The BBVA plans to leverage distributed ledger technology to help corporate banking and intends to launch a wide array of products for consumers. The company has previously worked with Spanish technology group Indra in a 75 million euro deal to provide the first corporate loan using blockchains.

A New Collaboration Leads to Digital Innovation

Repsol’s alliance with BBVA could help in bringing better potential to bring a competitive edge to its businesses. Nuria Avalos, who is the head of Blockchain and Digital Experimentation at Repsol, said:

“Repsol wants to actively take part in collaborative environments. Blockchain is a disruptive technology that is here to stay and the agreement with BBVA advances our strategy of driving digitization in all areas of our activity.”

The new development by the company is a private blockchain network called Hyperledger. The contract was signed using the Ethereum testnet using an immutable hash. BBVA’s CTO for New Digital Businesses Carlos Kuchkovsky has been elected for the second year straight as a member of the Governing Board of Hyperledger, which is one of the most prominent blockchain partnerships.

BBVA is also a part of major industry alliances like Alastria in Spain, Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, and R3.

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B9lab Launches Online Summer School for Aspiring Blockchain Developers

Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric Developer Courses offered back-to-back for the first time

LONDON – May 31, 2018 – (

In an effort to help aspiring blockchain developers fast-track their education, B9lab is excited to announce the launch of its inaugural Online Summer School.

From June to September 2018, participants will have the opportunity to get certified in both Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric (version 1.1) in just 4 months. This is the first time both developer courses have been offered back-to-back by B9lab, a leading provider of blockchain education, training and talent.

“This is an extremely demanding yet ultimately rewarding programme of study that requires a serious and dedicated effort of about 40 hours a week,” said B9lab co-founder Damien Ducourty. “We hope to create well-rounded blockchain developers ready to launch their careers and get coding in smart contracts and chaincode.”

Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric are two of the leading platforms in the blockchain space, yet each has a very different vision when it comes to use cases and applications. “For the undecided or those seeking a balanced and well-rounded foundation to springboard their blockchain career, we usually recommend starting with the more complex stack (Ethereum) and then complementing that knowledge with Hyperledger Fabric,” explains B9lab co-founder Elias Haase. “Learning both can also give developers the expertise needed to use Ethereum for other permissioned solutions like Quorum (EEA) and Hyperledger Sawtooth – a new course we are planning to launch very soon at B9lab.”

The B9lab Online Summer School is supported by expert instructors and offers access to a vibrant community of learning and collaboration.

Participants will have the opportunity to get certified in Ethereum and Hyperledger Fabric after passing each final exam with a grade of 80 percent or higher. As with all B9lab certificate courses, certifications are publicly verifiable on the Ethereum blockchain.

Enrollment for the inaugural B9lab Online Summer School is now open. The first course officially begins on June 11th, 2018.

About B9lab:

B9lab is the world’s leading blockchain education provider. Through our online academy, on-site workshops and talent services, B9lab has trained over 10,000 students from 112 countries. B9lab works with clients ranging from leading global institutions to talented independent developers all over the world.

Founded in 2014, our aim mission is to provide quality, technology-neutral education to prepare stakeholders for disruption and certify developers to drive that change. B9lab also offers blockchain advisory services to help companies, governments and institutions determine the best technical fit for their projects.

Media Contact: Nicole Harper, +44 20 3289 2724,

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[VIDEO] Hyperledger Interviews William Zuo, CEO and Founder of Shanghai Gingkoo Financial …

This month, we’re putting the community spotlight on Shanghai Gingkoo Financial Technology Co. We had the opportunity to sit down with CEO and Founder William Zuo during the 2017 Hyperledger Member Summit in Singapore to learn more about why they joined, and their experience migrating from using Ethereum to Hyperledger Fabric for their platform Starfish-chain.

Gingkoo is a leading fintech company and IT solution provider, working with more than 80 banks and financial institution across the globe. Gingkoo established in 2013 as the first company to enter the blockchain technology ecosystem in China. To further explore how to serve banks in with Distributed Ledger Technology in China, Gingkoo joined Hyperledger as a general member in November 2016.

Prior to collaborating with Hyperledger, Gingkoo developed their Starfish blockchain platform using Ethereum. Shortly after joining, they understood the benefits of using Hyperledger Fabric, and they migrated the Starfish platform over to Fabric. According to William, although it’s still early days for blockchain transformation in B2B business models, Hyperledger Fabric has enabled regulator users of the Starfish platform to have greater visibility into their data sets, which maintain security through encryption.

William praises Hyperledger Fabric for creating a “democracy” of sorts, in which everybody in the chain shares and maintains the database together. Hear more about William’s experience collaborating with Hyperledger Fabric and migrating to it from Ethereum in the full interview video below.


One Year Later: Interoperability & Standardization Shine at Consensus

Interoperability and standardization took center stage (literally) last week in New York at Consensus, when organizations like FedEx explained that both Ethereum and Hyperledger technology power their logistics solution and that it was a goal of theirs to be agnostic when choosing ledger technologies. Then there was the Enterprise Ethereum Alliance, which announced their 1.0 specification that many blockchain developer communities, including Hyperledger Sawtooth, plan to be compatible with in the near future.

It seems as though our hard work at Hyperledger has been paying off and Executive Director, Brian Behlendorf believes we’re now seeing evolution beyond the basic technology questions to more involved discussions about scale, interoperability and governance. In fact, he met with Steven Norton of The Wall Street Journal during Consensus to discuss just that. Brian told Steven:

“Now that we have running systems and there is real value on these different networks, figuring out how to wire them together is a greater priority now than it was a few years ago. But even outside the blockchain space, interoperability is always a process, never a destination. People are starting to finally ask how do we get out of a simplistic mode of saying everyone should all be on the same public ledger, and instead get to a more sophisticated set of questions, like what does interoperability actually mean. It might mean wiring these things together with common software underneath. It might also mean common software on top.”

The Hyperledger booth at Consensus 2018

The discussions around interoperability were a significant contrast to what we saw one year ago at Consensus, when many were just trying to wrap their minds around the technology capabilities and experimentation was in full swing. The idea of different blockchains interacting with one another still seemed like several years away. At that time, we only saw a glimpse of potential possibilities for interoperability when the HACERA team created a fun chess game called Dutchess at the Building Blocks Hackathon that used a combination of technologies like Ethereum, Solidity, Quorum, and Hyperledger Sawtooth.

Jonathan Levi from HACERA explaining different technologies powering Dutchess

At Hyperledger, we envision a world of many chains, some public like the crypto-currencies and some permissioned like you will see in healthcare settings. That’s why we focus on developing the common frameworks for building all kinds of chains. Our diverse developer communities remain diligent in helping the industry advance interoperability above the layer of the DLT, and are on constant look out for simple and open cross-blockchain approaches. An early example of this was the integration between the Hyperledger Sawtooth and Hyperledger Burrow projects last year. As a result of that integration, simple EVM smart contracts can be deployed to Hyperledger Sawtooth using the “Seth” (Sawtooth Ethereum) Transaction Family.

“This integration validates that positioning and establishes a strong upstream-downstream relationship between the Sawtooth and Burrow projects. Successful open source endeavours are community driven, collaborative efforts and this linkage between the Hyperledger Sawtooth and Hyperledger Burrow teams reinforces that ethos.” – Adam Ludvik, Bitwise IO & Casey Kuhlman, Monax

Building on that development, the Hyperledger Sawtooth community released a feature called Dynamic Consensus, which goes beyond pluggable consensus to allow networks to change consensus on the fly. Hyperledger Sawtooth supports three consensus protocols right now and two more are in development. Also in development, is a change to the Sawtooth consensus API that will allow consensus providers written in a variety of languages. This follows a similar pattern to Sawtooth’s support for smart contracts in a variety of languages. This expands the breadth of possible consensus algorithm andprotocols that can be easily coupled to Sawtooth. A more recent example is the Hyperledger Fabric community, which has been working hard to create a bridge to the Ethereum community, so that developers can write EVM smart contracts on Fabric. The hope is that our community will continue to tighten integration and interoperability across Hyperledger projects and beyond, allowing a greater number of available options for developers. We hope that even more developers can start to think out of the box, connecting blockchains, and doing it securely. The problem of working with more than one technology stack is no longer a technical one.

Community Architect, Tracy Kuhrt presenting at the Hyperledger NYC Meetup after Consensus

Hyperledger was established to bring together related, and even competing, technologies with the expectation that the common governance will lead to interoperability and gradual consolidation. Interoperability will be essential to the widespread adoption of blockchain technology because that is what will help the blockchain business ecosystem standardize and thrive. As Brian mentioned to The Wall Street Journal, standards are hard, but getting everyone to agree will end up being the bigger challenge:

“I think the tech is ready for the volume of transactions people want to throw at it and the flexibility of programming models that they want. It’s really the governance. It’s hard enough for one organization to launch any new product. Getting multiple parties to agree on anything — like a time of day for a meeting, let alone a common application — will end up being a bigger challenge. Standards are hard. These things are alive and humming like a benzene ring. They depend upon everybody running the right thing at all times. That I think operationally will be the big challenge.” – Brian Behlendorf

We look forward to the rest of 2018 and all the progress to be made with interoperability. We hope you join us in the effort by contributing to Hyperledger projects.

You can plug into the Hyperledger community at github, Rocket.Chat the wiki or our mailing list. As always, you can keep up with what’s new with Hyperledger on Twitter or email us with any questions:


Ripple [XRP] announces its new initiative at Consensus 2018 – XSpring

The fourth annual blockchain technology summit, Consensus 2018 was held from 14th to 16th May at the New York Hilton Midtown. There were more tha 250 speakers who addressed the various issues in the blockchain technology.

Every single announcement during the summit was a reason to celebrate for the blockchain community. There were around 4000 attendees from the academic-policy makers, start-ups in the industry, investors, financial establishments, and major tech enterprises.

During the Consensus 2018, a lot of different aspects of blockchain technology have been discussed by the speakers and blockchain based firms showcased how the industry is benefiting as a whole from their achievements.

IBM has given out a statement regarding their Blockchain Platform during the summit, they understand that the blockchain technology should maintain its transparency, longevity, and interoperability. IBM is one of the founding members of an open source platform called Hyperledger, which is hosted by The Linux Foundation. IBM is using Hyperledger to provide their clients the benefits of advance cross-industry blockchain.

The Linux Foundation had developed Hyperledger in December 2015, which is an umbrella open source blockchain project to support the collaborative development of blockchain-based distributed ledgers.

Some of the technology giants announced their latest technological ventures across the blockchain industry during the summit. They are releasing different blockchain tools to provide support to begin the implementation of the technology and get more people invested in it. Amazon’s AWS Blockchain templates and Microsoft’s Azure Blockchain Workbench are the two main innovations which were presented during the summit.

Along with this, Ripple announced its new initiative called XSpring, which is responsible for supporting the developers in building XRP-related projects. Using XSpring the companies can develop new software solutions which improve the networks and ecosystems to work together. XSpring will also provide grants to use XRP and XRP-ledger.

Tweet by a Ripple proponent

Tweet by a Ripple proponent

Edebian, a Ripple enthusiast says:

“IBM is diversifying its investmets in the blockchain industry as a premier founding member of Hyperledger and many other projects. Ripple also recently joined the Linux Foundation and strangely enough also R3 is a member of the same consortium”

The Permissioned blockchain is being developed by various companies to get information on all the participants in the network. The firms demonstrated the potential benefits of using permission blockchain platforms during the summit. The demonstration was held to educate and make people aware of the latest advancements in the technology.

The operator of the Australian Securities Exchange Ltd or ASX limited has published a new consultation paper detailing the scope and implementation plan regarding the replacement of the Clearing House Electronic Sub-register System [CHESS] as they are currently working on a replacement. CHESS is a blockchain based system that has more efficient clearing settlement and can provide improved post-trade services like reduced reconciliation, record keeping, and fast transactions.

EnVision Corporation’s incubated company called Veridium is going to use IBM Blockchain technology to manage carbon credit tokens on the Stellar blockchain. They are planning to process carbon accounting and offsetting into digital tokens which can be easily traded across the network.


Blockchain Program Hyperledger Welcomes Thirteen New Members

Hyperledger Project, a collaborative cross-industry effort created to advance blockchain technology, announced last week it welcomed thirteen new members from healthcare to finance. The newest members are Beijing Proinsight Technology, CAREiQ, Distributed Ledger Technologies (DLT) Pte Ltd., Eden Partners, Ehave, Inc. (OTCQB: EHVVF), Equidato Technologies AG/SophiaTX, Globlue Technologies, InformAmuse S.r.l., IPCHAIN Association, Paramount Software Solutions Inc. and Till Payments.

The program reported that it aims to enable organizations to build robust, industry-specific applications, platforms and hardware systems to support their individual business transactions by creating enterprise-grade, open source distributed ledger frameworks and code bases. It was revealed:

“Hyperledger supports an open community that values contributions and participation from various entities. As such, pre-approved non-profits, open source projects and government entities can join Hyperledger at no cost as associate members.”

Speaking about the latest additions to the program, Brian Behlendorf, Executive Director at Hyperledger, added:

“We are entering a very exciting time in Hyperledger’s evolution, as more and more of these technologies are being deployed in various production settings. The size and scale of our membership and our technologies has fueled rapid innovation and, now, increasing application across industries and geographies. Our newest members will play a key role in feeding that growth, helping bring blockchain and distributed ledger technologies to the core of business, government and consumer transactions.”

Hyperledger added that associate members joining this month include Blockchain at Berkeley and Zhejiang Blockchain Technology Application Association.


Hyperledger Adds New Health IT Members to Blockchain Project

April 26, 2018 – Hyperledger announced the newest members of its open source blockchain project, including two health IT companies, Ehave and CareiQ. Healthcare blockchain hopes to solve interoperability and data exchange issues.

Ehave uses data to help improve patient management, diagnoses, and treatment for mental health patients and CareiQ creates better connected health by connecting clinicians to patients using mobile devices.

More healthcare organizations are joining the Hyperledger project as blockchain becomes more of a reality for healthcare.

“We are entering a very exciting time in Hyperledger’s evolution, as more and more of these technologies are being deployed in various production settings,” Hyperledger Executive Director Brian Behlendorf said in a statement. “The size and scale of our membership and our technologies has fueled rapid innovation and, now, increasing application across industries and geographies.”

“Our newest members will play a key role in feeding that growth, helping bring blockchain and distributed ledger technologies to the core of business, government and consumer transactions.”

Ehave and CareiQ join other healthcare organizations in the Hyperledger project including Change Healthcare.

Late last year, Change Healthcare released the first healthcare blockchain solution using The Hyperledger framework Fabric 1.0. Its solution will help payers and providers increase their revenue cycle efficiency.

“We are very excited to join the The Linux Foundation and Hyperledger community to continue our collaborative efforts in leveraging the blockchain technology within the healthcare industry,” CareiQ CIO Dustin Minter said in a statement. “Our Hyperledger membership converges blockchain with emerging technologies in Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IoT) provides new opportunities to explore digital health economies. In result, we are cutting time and costs, while connecting the dots among millions of ‘things’ enabling innovation for better, clearer personalized diagnoses allowing for a greater focus on preventative rather than reactive care.”

Adding blockchain to other innovative developments and projects is a way health IT companies can enhance their tools and better integrate them into healthcare organizations using the Hyperledger standard.

Hyperledger’s goal is to help organizations build industry-specific applications, platforms, and hardware using blockchain for better overall interoperability.

“We are excited to join Hyperledger to help shape and advance an open standard for protecting health data for patients, clinicians, researchers and other healthcare stakeholders,” said Ehave, Inc. CEO Prateek Dwivedi. “As a provider of a cloud based health informatics platform, data security and patient privacy are the cornerstones of our architecture, and we look forward to working with leading organizations to ensure patients feel confident that their data is safe.”

Blockchain was almost non-existent in healthcare until the last few months. After Change Healthcare released its blockchain solution, several other organizations followed suit.

Earlier this week Alternate Health announced its EHR solutions powered by blockchain, and Luxoft along with Appian built a blockchain adapter for organizations using Appian’s rapid app development platform aimed at the healthcare industry.

Open source communities become more important to the development process as blockchain technology continues to develop. Open source communities and workgroups are an invaluable tool for new and innovative technology because it helps the technology develop faster.

Sharing ideas, trials, and errors with a blockchain workgroup can prevent organizations from repeating common mistakes during development. This approach can also help other organizations discover complex and advanced uses of blockchain without each entity needing to come across these discoveries on their own. Organizations can use parts of code that has already been developed instead of developing their own.

Hyperledger is currently the biggest open source blockchain project and its members are working toward developing a standard so blockchain can he be included as a vital and standard part of IT infrastructure. By adding more healthcare members, the faster the technology will become standard in the healthcare industry.


Blockchain Frameworks for Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum Released By Amazon Web Services

Amazon Web Services cloud platform recently released its blockchain framework that is based for Hyperledger Fabric and Ethereum. This will enable users to create and manage their own decentralized apps (Dapps) that is based on blockchain. Amazon Web Services (AWS) made this announcement in an online post on April 19.

The First Blockchain Solution on AWS

According to the post, users can build their own blockchain apps through the CloudFormation Templates of Amazon Web Services to avoid the manual setup of blockchain networks that consume a lot of time. Despite the rumors last year that Amazon Web Services wasn’t planning to release blockchain-based services, on December 6, 2017, the company announced a partnership with R3 Distributed Ledger Technology Consortium. This partnership made the Corda platform of the company to be the first blockchain solution on Amazon Web Services.

The Introduction of Blockchain Code

The Hyperledger Blockchain tech firm of Linux Foundation (which was found in 2015) introduced its first Blockchain code production, Fabric 1.0 back in July last year. The Distributed Ledger Technology products of Hyperledger have become very popular among firms that are integrating blockchain solutions into platforms to enhance their services.

The implementation of the Chinese Huawei Blockchain-as-a-Service tool on the Blockchain Cloud Service of Huawei is the most recent deployment of Hyperledger, and it was announced on April 17. On the 9th of April, Proxeus and IBM Switzerland introduced a more effective and faster way of registration a Swiss startup on Blockchain by implementing smart contracts and Hyperledger blockchain.

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Ethereum, which was launched by Vitalik Buterin in 2014, is now one of the most popular platforms out there. Blockchain is used for the development decentralized applications among developers. On the 19th of April, NASA announced that it’s creating an autonomous spacecraft that could make decisions without human intervention by using Ethereum Blockchain technology.


Consortium of Jewelry Industry Leaders Announce TrustChain, First Global Blockchain Initiative to …

IBM is recognized as the leading enterprise blockchain provider. The company’s research, technical and business experts have broken barriers in transaction processing speeds, developed the most advanced cryptography to secure transactions, and are contributing millions of lines of open source code to advance blockchain for businesses. IBM is the leader in open-source blockchain solutions built for the enterprise. Since 2016, IBM has worked with hundreds of clients across financial services, supply chain, government, retail, digital rights management and healthcare to implement blockchain applications, and operates a number of networks running live and in production. The cloud-based IBM Blockchain Platform delivers the end-to-end capabilities that clients need to quickly activate and successfully develop, operate, govern and secure their own business networks. IBM is an early member of Hyperledger, an open source collaborative effort created to advance cross-industry blockchain technologies. For more information about IBM Blockchain, visit or follow us on Twitter at @ibmblockchain.